Wild pistachio tree (Pistacia mutica) is considered the most important species in the Zagros forests. It can adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions. To find the suitable ecological conditions for pistachio species, we investigated different environmental factors such as gradient, aspect and position of the slopes through the distribution area. Frequency of pistachio trees in the north and northwest of Qalajeh forests was 36.4% and 1%, respectively. Maximum (32%) and minimum (13%) number of wild pistachio trees were in 30%–60% and >120% slope classes, respectively. The most number and least number of pistachio trees were found at elevations of 1100–1200 m and 2200–2300 m, respectively. The percentage of pistachio canopy coverage was 10. The average percentage of herbaceous coverage was 6.5. Pistachio trees of diameter per hectare at breast height (DBH) >20 cm numbered 5 while average number of pistachio trees was 8 per hectare. Pistachio seedlings per hectare averaged 3.5. The number of other species per ha was 7 trees. The effect of aspect on other species was not significant (p=0.151). Slope class and geographical aspect did not affect regeneration (p=0.275 and p=0.111, respectively). Pistachio plays an important economic role in semi-arid areas, therefore it is essential to protect and restore Qalajeh forests through participation by government and local people.