Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 29–38 | Cite as

A comparison of Guibourtia copallifera Benn. stands in South West Burkina Faso-community structure and regeneration

  • Assan Gnoumou
  • Fidèle Bognounou
  • Karen Hahn
  • Adjima Thiombiano
Original Paper


Shifting agriculture, fire, and over exploitation of wood and copal resin are the major causes of Guibourtia copallifera Benn. vulnerability in the south-west of Burkina Faso. Conservation of endangered species requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of small populations. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and the dynamics of G. copallifera communities in two different types of land use history, a protected area (stated forest of Comoé-Leraba) and an unprotected area (the woodlands of Tourni and Timba). A total of 17 rectangular plots (50 m × 20 m) were sampled in both protected and unprotected areas. All woody species were systematically identified, measured and classified into diameter and height classes. In the two different types of land use, the dynamics of G. copallifera’s communities were good, and the diversities were similar and low with high β diversity.


biodiversity conservation shifting agriculture vulnerable species West Africa 


  1. Anonymous. 2005. Atlas du Burkina Faso. Les Édition J.A. aux Édition du Jaguar, p. 115.Google Scholar
  2. Arbonnier M. 2002. Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d’Afrique de l’Ouest. CIRAD — MNHN — UICN, p. 539.Google Scholar
  3. Aubréville A. 1939. Forêts reliques en Afrique Occidentale Française. Revue Internationale de Botanique Appliquée et d’Agriculture Tropicale, 19: 479–484.Google Scholar
  4. Aubréville A. 1949a. Climats, forêts et désertification de l’Afrique tropicale Soc. Ed. Paris: Géogr. Marit. et col.,.Google Scholar
  5. Aubréville A. 1949b. Contribution à la paléohistoire des Forêts de l’Afrique tropicale Société d’Editions Géographiques, Maritimes, et Coloniales, Paris.Google Scholar
  6. Begon M, Townsend CR, Harper JL. 2006. Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, p. 738.Google Scholar
  7. Bellefontaine R, Gaston A, Petrucci Y. 2000. Management of natural forests of dry tropical zones. FAO Conservation Guide: p. 318.Google Scholar
  8. Bellefontaine R. 2005. Sexual reproduction is not the only way for a lot of woody trees: Analysis of 875 cases — Introduction, table and bibliography. Sécheresse, 16: 315–317.Google Scholar
  9. Bognounou F, Thiombiano A, Savadogo P, Boussim JI, Oden PC, Guinko S. 2009. Woody vegetation structure and composition at four sites along a latitudinal gradient in Western Burkina Faso. Bois Et Forets Des Tropiques, 300(2): 29–44.Google Scholar
  10. Bognounou F, Tigabu M, Savadogo P, Thiombiano A, Boussim JI, Oden PC, Guinko S. 2010. Regeneration of five Combretaceae species along a latitudinal gradient in Sahelo-Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. Annals of Forest Science, 67: 306–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bouquet A, Debray M. 1974. Plantes médicinales de la Côte d’Ivoire. Edition de l’office de la recherche scientifique et technique outre mer. 232 p.Google Scholar
  12. Callaway RM. 2007. Positive interactions and interdependence in plant communities, Springer, p. 415.Google Scholar
  13. Collins SL, Glenn SM, Gibson DJ. 1995. Experimental analyses of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition — decoupling cause and effect. Ecology, 76: 486–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins SL, Knapp AK, Briggs JM, Blair JM, Steinauer EM. 1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science, 280: 745–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Connell JH. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs — high diversity of trees and corals is maintained only in a non-equilibrium state. Science, 199: 1302–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crawley MJ, Johnston AE, Silvertown J, Dodd M, Mazancourt C, Heard MS, Henman DF, Edwards GR. 2005. Determinants of species richness in the park grass experiment. American Naturalist, 165: 179–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crawley MJ. 2005. Statistics: An introduction using R. Chister, England: John Wiley & Sons, p. 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Currie DJ, Paquin V. 1987. Large-scale biogeographical patterns of species richness of trees. Nature, 329: 326–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Demel T. 1996. Seed ecology and regeneration in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Doctoral Thesis. Umeå: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Repro.Google Scholar
  20. Driessen P, Deckers J, Spaargaren O. 2001. Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsGoogle Scholar
  21. Duvall CS. 2003. Symbols, not data: rare trees and vegetation history in Mali. The Geographical Journal, 169: 295–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fenner M, Thompson K. 2005. The ecology of seeds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fontes J, Guinko S. 1995. Carte de la végétation et de l’occupation du sol du Burkina Faso. Note explicative. Ministère de la Coopération Francaise.Google Scholar
  24. Fries J, Heermans J. 1992. Natural forest management in semi-arid Africa: Status and research needs. Unasylva, 43: 9–15.Google Scholar
  25. Gaston KJ. 2000. Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature, 405: 220–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gaston KJ. 2007. Latitudinal gradient in species richness. Current Biology, 17 (15): R574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibson CWD, Brown VK. 1991. The effects of grazing on local colonisation and extinction during early succession. Journal of Vegetation Science, 2: 291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Glele Kakai D, Palm R, Kokode GG. 2005. L’Analyse discriminante décisionnelle: principes et applications sur ordinateur. DBAM/PISB/CRA-Agonkanmey/INRA, p. 64.Google Scholar
  29. Grime JP. 1973. Control of species density in herbaceous vegetation. Journal of Environmental Management, 1: 151–167.Google Scholar
  30. Guinko S. 1984. Végétation de la Haute Volta. Thèse. Université de Bordeaux III, Bordeaux, p. 318.Google Scholar
  31. Guinko S. 2005. Flore illustrée de la Forêt Classée du Kou. Ouagadougou: Ministère de l’environnement et du cadre de vie, p. 143.Google Scholar
  32. Guy R. 1954. Notes sur la flore de l’Afrique de l’ouest-africain (suite). Bulletin de l’IFAN. Série A. Sciences naturelles, 16 (2): 321–369.Google Scholar
  33. Hawthorne W, Jongkind C. 2006. Woody plants of werstern African Forests. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, p. 1023.Google Scholar
  34. Heikkinen RK, Birks HJB. 1996. Spatial and environmental components of variation in the distribution patterns of subarctic plant species at Kevo, N Finland — A case study at the meso-scale level. Ecography, 19: 341–351.Google Scholar
  35. Hillebrand H. 2004. On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. American Naturalist, 163: 192–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huston MA. 1994. Biology Diversity: The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 681.Google Scholar
  37. IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 15 February 2006. Cambridge: International Union for Nature Conservation and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  38. Jaeger P. 1956. Contribution à l’étude des forêts reliques du Soudan occidental. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire, 18: 993–1053.Google Scholar
  39. Keay RWJ. 1954. Flora of West Tropical Africa. 2ed., Volume I, part 1. London: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and administrations, 295 p.Google Scholar
  40. Keay RWJ. 1958. Flora of West Tropical Africa. 2ed., Volume I, part 2. London: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and administrations, p. 828.Google Scholar
  41. Khurana E, Singh JS. 2001. Ecology of seed and seedling growth for conservation and restoration of tropical dry forest: a review. Environmental Conservation, 28: 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kiltajima K, Fenner M. 2000. Ecology of Seedling Regeneration. In: M. Fenner, (eds), The Ecology of Regeneration of Plant Communities. Wallingford: CABI Publishing, pp. 331–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kondoh M. 2001. Unifying the relationships of species richness to productivity and disturbance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 268, 269–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kozlowski TT. 2002. Physiological ecology of natural regeneration of harvested and disturbed forest stands: implications for forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 158: 195–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krebs C. 1999. Ecological methodology. New York, NY: Benjamin/Cumings, Addison-Wesley Longman Educational Publishers, p. 620.Google Scholar
  46. Ky-Dembele C, Tigabu M, Bayala J, Ouédraogo SJ, Oden PC. 2007. The relative importance of different regeneration mechanisms in a selectively cut savanna-woodland in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Forest Ecology and Management, 243: 28–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lieth H. 1975. Modeling the primary productivity of the world. In: H. Lieth and R. H. Whittaker, (eds), Primary productivity of the biosphere. New York: Springer, pp. 237–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Magurran AE. 2004. Measuring Biological diversity. Malden, Oxford, and Victoria: Blackwell Publishing, p. 256.Google Scholar
  49. Marod D, Kutintara U, Tanaka H, Nakashizuka T. 2002. The effects of drought and fire on seed and seedling dynamics in a tropical seasonal forest in Thailand. Plant Ecology, 161: 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mbayngone E, Schmidt M, Hahn-Hadjali K, Thiombiano A, Guinko S. 2008. Magnoliophyta of the partial faunal reserve of Pama, Burkina Faso. Check List, 4: 251–266.Google Scholar
  51. Mbayngone E. 2008. Flore et végétation de la réserve partielle de faune de Pama, sudest du Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou: Thèse Unique de doctorat, Université de Ouagadougou, p. 137.Google Scholar
  52. McCune B, Grace JB. 2002. Analysis of ecological communities. MjM Software Design. p. 300.Google Scholar
  53. Menaut JC, Lepage M, Abbadiel L. 1995. Savanna, Woodlands and dry forest in Africa. In: Stephen H. Bullock, Harold A. Mooney, Ernesto Medina (eds), Seasonally dry tropical forests. UK, USA: Cambridge University Press, pp. 64–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Merganic J, Sterba H. 2006. Characterization of diameter distribution using the weibull function: method of moments. European Journal of Forest Research, 125: 427–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Müller J. 2003. Zur Vegetationsökologie der Savannen-landschaften im Sahel Burkina Faso. Diss. Bot. Inst. der J.W. Goethe-Univ, p. 218.Google Scholar
  56. Myers N. 1980a. Conservasion of tropical moist forest. National research Counsil, Washington D.C., p, 205.Google Scholar
  57. Myers N. 1980b. The conversion of tropical forests. Environment, 22: 6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Myers N. 1992. The primary source: Tropical forests and our future. New York: W.W. Norton, p, 425.Google Scholar
  59. Myers N. 2003. Conservation of biodiversity: how are we doing? Environmentalist, 23: 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Neumann K, Müller-Haude P. 1999. Forêts sèches au sud-ouest du Burkina Faso: végétation — sols — action de l’homme. Phytocoenologia, 29: 53–85.Google Scholar
  61. Nzunda EF, Griffiths ME, Lawes MJ. 2007. Resprouting versus turning up of leaning trees in a subtropical coastal dune forest in South Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 23: 289–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Olff H, Ritchie ME. 1998. Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13: 261–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Osborne PL. 2000. Tropical ecosystems and ecological concepts. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, p, 425.Google Scholar
  64. Ouédraogo A. 2006. Diversité et dynamique de la végétation ligneuse de la partie orientale du Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou: Thèse de doctorat, Université de Ouagadougou, p. 196.Google Scholar
  65. Ouédraogo O, Thiombiano A, Hahn-Hadjali K, Guinko S. 2008. Diversité et structure des groupements ligneux du Parc national d’Arly (Est du Burkina Faso). Flora Veg Sudano-Sambesica, 11: 5–16.Google Scholar
  66. Ouédraogo O. 2009. Phytosociologie, dynamique et productivité de la végétation du parc national d’Arly (Sud-est du Burkina Faso). Ouagadougou: Thèse unique de doctorat, Université de Ouagadougou, p.140.Google Scholar
  67. Ouoba P. 2006. Flore et végétation de la forêt classée de Niangologo, Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou: Thèse unique de doctorat, Université de Ouagadougou, p.139.Google Scholar
  68. Peters CM. 1997. Exploitation soutenue de produits forestiers autres que le bois en forêt tropicale humide: Manuel d’information d’écologie. Programme d’appui à la biodiversité; No 2; Corporate Press. Inc.Google Scholar
  69. Landover, M.D. Pietikainen A, Kytöviita MM, Vuoti U. 2005. Mycorrhiza and seedling establishment in a subarctic meadow: effects of fertilization and defoliation. Journal of Vegetation Science, 16: 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. R development Core Team. 2010. R Development Core Team R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Fondation for Statistical computing, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  71. Richerson PJ, Lum K. 1980. Patterns of Plant-Species Diversity in California — Relation to Weather and Topography. American Naturalist, 116: 504–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosenzwe Ml. 1968. Net Primary Productivity of Terrestrial Communities — Prediction from Climatological Data. American Naturalist, 102: 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rosenzweig ML, Sandlin EA. 1997. Special diversity and latitudes: listening to area’s signal. Oikos, 80: 172–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ryniker KA, Bush JK, Van Auken OW. 2006. Structure of Quercus gambilii communities in the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 233: 69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sambaré O, Ouédraogo O, Wittig R, Thiombiano A. 2010. Diversité et écologie des groupements ligneux des formations ripicoles du Burkina Faso (Afrique de l’Ouest). Int J Biol Chem Sci, 4(5): 1782–1800.Google Scholar
  76. Schemske DW, Mittelbach GG., Cornell HV, Sobel JM, Roy K. 2009. Is there a latitudinal gradient in the importance of biotic interactions? Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 40: 245–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schmidt M, König K, Müller JV. 2008. Modelling species richness and life form composition in Sahelian Burkina Faso with remote sensing data. Journal of Arid Environments, 72: 1506–1517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schmidt M, Kreft H, Thiombiano A, Zizka G. 2005. Herbarium collections and field data-based plant diversity maps for Burkina Faso. Diversity and Distributions, 11: 509–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schmidt M. 2006. Pflanzenvielfalt in Burkina Faso, Analyse, Modellierung und Dokumentation. Frankfurt am Main: Dissertation Goethe-Universität, p. 188.Google Scholar
  80. Spehn EM, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Schmid B, Hector A, Caldeira MC, Dimitrakopoulos PG, Finn JA, Jumpponen A, O’Donnovan G, Pereira JS, Schulze ED, Troumbis AY, Korner C. 2002. The role of legumes as a component of biodiversity in a cross-European study of grassland biomass nitrogen. Oikos, 98: 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stevens MHH, Carson WP. 2001. Phenological complementarity, species diversity, and ecosystem function. Oikos, 92: 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stevens MHH. 2006. Placing local plant species richness in the context of environmental drivers of metacommunity richness. Journal of Ecology, 94: 58–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Suding KN, Collins SL, Gough L, Clark C, Cleland EE, Gross KL, Milchunas DG, Pennings S. 2005. Functional- and abundance-based mechanisms explain diversity loss due to N fertilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of USA, 102: 4387–4392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Swaine MD. 1992. Characteristics of dry forest in West Africa and the influence of fire. Journal of Vegetation Science, 3: 365–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thiombiano A, Schmidt M, Kreft H, Guinko S. 2006. Influence of the climatic gradient on the distribution of Combretaceae species in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Candollea, 61: 189–213.Google Scholar
  86. Thiombiano A. 1996. Contribution à l’étude des Combretaceae dans les formations végétales de la région Est du Burkina Faso. Ouagadougou: Thèse. Université de, p. 220.Google Scholar
  87. Thiombiano A. 2005. Les Combretaceae du Burkina Faso: taxonomie, écologie et régénération des espèces. Thèse d’état. Ouagadougou: Université de Ouagadougou, p. 290.Google Scholar
  88. Vieira DLM, Scariot A. 2006. Principle of natural regeneration of tropical dry forests restoration. Restoration Ecology, 14: 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wiens JJ, Donoghue MJ. 2004. Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19: 639–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wright DH. 1983. Species-Energy Theory — an Extension of Species-Area Theory. Oikos, 41: 496–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zegeye HL, Teketay D, Kelbessa E. 2006. Diversity, regeneration status and socio-economic importance of the vegetation in the islands of Lake Ziway, south-central Ethiopia. Flora, 201: 483–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Assan Gnoumou
    • 1
  • Fidèle Bognounou
    • 1
  • Karen Hahn
    • 2
  • Adjima Thiombiano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of plant Biology and PhysiologyOugadougou UniversityOuagadougouBurkina Faso
  2. 2.Institute For Ecology, Evolution and DiversityJ. W. Goethe-UniversityFrankfurt/MAllemagne

Personalised recommendations