“Harvesting” and Use of Human (Embryonic) Stem Cells: An Islamic Evaluation
- 454 Downloads
This paper gives insight into the Islamic bioethical discussion on harvesting and using human embryonic (hESC) and adult stem cells. It describes some of the Islamic legal mechanisms involved in the bioethical discourse among Muslims. As the contemporary Islamic bioethical discourse is very diverse, the paper focuses on the critical discussion of related resolutions of the Saudi-based Islamic Fiqh Academy due to the esteem in which the IFA is held in the Islamic world and the pertinence of their rulings on this issue. This study discusses the different sources of human adult and embryonic stem cells and their use from an Islamic perspective, while questioning some directions the Islamic bioethical discourse has taken. The paper invites interested parties to deliberate the use of some of the legal means resorted to in the ongoing Islamic bioethical discourse.
KeywordsIslamic bioethics Stem cell research Harvesting human stem cells Bioethics of stem cell use Islamic rulings on stem cell use
- Ahmed, A. 2007. Stem cells promise reality and controversy. Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America (JIMA) 39(2): 54–57.Google Scholar
- Al-Ashqar, M.S. 2006. Abḥāth ijtihādiyyah fī al-fiqh al-ṭibbī [Islamic legal studies in medical fiqh]. Jordan: Dār al-Nafā’is.Google Scholar
- Al-Bakrī, W.A-W. 2011. Al-ḥukm al-shar‘ī fī istikhdām al-khalāyā al-judh‘iyyah [The Islamic legal ruling on using stem cells]. Paper presented at the National Conference on Stem Cells, October 5–6, in Amman, Jordan.Google Scholar
- Al-Bār, M.A. 2003. Al-khalāyā al-judh‘iyyah wa l-qaḍāyā al-akhlāqiyyah wa l-fiqhiyyah [Stem cells and the ethical and Islamic legal issues]. Jeddah: Majallat al-Majma‘ al-Fiqhī.Google Scholar
- Al-Ḍarīr, S.M. n.d. Ḥukm al-ijḥāḍ fī l-sharī‘ati l-islāmiyyah [The verdict on abortion in Islamic law]. Majallat Majma’ al-Fiqh al-Islāmī Fifth year (7): 250–264.Google Scholar
- Al-Hindī, A-D. 1985. Kanz al-‘ummāl fī sunan al-aqwāl wa l-af‘āl [Treasure of those of good speech and deeds]. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risālah.Google Scholar
- Al-mawsū‘ah al-fiqhiyyah [The fiqh encyclopaedia]. 1983. Wizārat al-Awqāf wa l-shu’ūn al-dīniyyah [Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs] Kuwait.Google Scholar
- Al-Natshah, M. A. 2001. Al-masā’il al-ṭibbiyyah al-mustajiddah fī dhaw’i al-sharī‘ati l-islāmiyyah [New medical cases in the light of Islamic law]. Leeds: Silsilat Iṣdārāt al-Ḥikmah, no.7.Google Scholar
- Al-Qarādāghī, A. 2009. Al-ijḥādh wa marāḥil al-janīn wa bidāyat al-ḥayāt [Abortion, the developmental stages of the embryo and the beginning of life]. www.qaradaghi.com. Accessed April 8, 2015.
- Bāsalāmah, A. 1991. Bad’u l-ḥayāt, wa ḥurmat al-ajinnah [The beginning of life and the inviolability of embryos]. In Al-Islām wa l-mushkilāt al-ṭibbiyah al-mu‘āṣirah, awwalan, al-injāb fī dhaw’i al-Islām, a‘māl nadwat al-injāb fī dhaw’i l-islām [Islam and contemporary medical problems, First: Reproduction in the light of Islam. Proceedings of the 1983 Symposium ‘Reproduction in the Light of Islam’], edited by A-R. Al-‘Iwaḍī, 358–374. Silsilat maṭbū‘āt Munaẓẓamat al-ṭibb al-Islāmī [Publication Series of the Organisation of Islamic Medicine]. Kuwait: Organisation of Islamic Medicine.Google Scholar
- Bouzenita, A.I. 2010. Islamic legal perspectives on genetically modified food. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences (AJISS) 27(1): 1–30.Google Scholar
- Fadel, H.E. 2007. Prospects and ethics of stem cell research: An Islamic perspective. Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America (JIMA) 39(2): 73–83.Google Scholar
- Garel, M., C. Stark, B. Blondel, G. Lefebvre, D. Vauthier-Brouzes and J.R. Zorn. 1997. Psychological reactions after multifetal pregnancy reduction: A 2-year follow-up study. Human Reproduction (12)3: 617–622.Google Scholar
- Islamic Fiqh Academy. 2000. Resolutions and Recommendations of the Council of the Islamic Fiqh Academy 1985–2000. http://www.themwl.org/Bodies/Decisions/default.aspx?d=1&did=19&l=AR. Accessed March 8, 2015.
- Ismā‘īl, M.B. 1997. Al-qawā‘id al-fiqhiyyah bayna l-aṣālah wa l-tawjīh [The general principles of fiqh, between originality and orientation]. Heliopolis: Dār al-Manār.Google Scholar
- Medical News Today. 2015. Stem cell transplantation shows potential for reducing disability in patients with MS, January 22. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/288352.php. Accessed September 15, 2015.
- Melton, D., and C. Chowen. 2013. “Stemness”: Definitions, criteria, and standards. In Essentials of Stem Cell Biology, 2nd ed, edited by R. Lanza, 1: xxiii. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Muslim World League. 2003. Resolutions of the Islamic Fiqh Council—17th session 1424 H. http://themwl.org/global/2012/05/23/resolutions-of-the-islamic-fiqh-council-17th-session-1424h. Accessed November 20, 2016.
- Roelandt, P.R., V.D. Roobruck, and C. Verfaille. 2013. Multipotent adult progenitor cells. In Handbook of Stem Cells, 2: 503–511. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Scott, C.T. 2006. Stem cell now: A brief introduction to the coming medical revolution. New York: Plume Books.Google Scholar
- Trounson, A. 2013. Why stem cell research? Advances in the field. In Essentials of Stem Cell Biology, 2nd ed, edited by R. Lanza, 1: xix, Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Walker, S. 2007. Biotechnology demystified: A self-teaching guide. London: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Whiteman, H. 2015. Pluripotent cells used to generate hair growth. Medical News Today, January 28. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288657.php. Accessed May 15, 2015.
- Young, C. I. Klimanskaya, S. Becker, et al. 2008. Human embryonic stem cell lines generated without embryo destruction. Stem Cell (February): 113–116.Google Scholar