Advertisement

Journal of Bioethical Inquiry

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 281–293 | Cite as

What Do the Various Principles of Justice Mean Within the Concept of Benefit Sharing?

  • Bege Dauda
  • Yvonne Denier
  • Kris Dierickx
Original Research

Abstract

The concept of benefit sharing pertains to the act of giving something in return to the participants, communities, and the country that have participated in global health research or bioprospecting activities. One of the key concerns of benefit sharing is the ethical justifications or reasons to support the practice of the concept in global health research and bioprospecting. This article evaluates one of such ethical justifications and its meaning to benefit sharing, namely justice. We conducted a systematic review to map the various principles of justice that are linked to benefit sharing and analysed their meaning to the concept of benefit sharing. Five principles of justice (commutative, distributive, global, procedural, and compensatory) have been shown to be relevant in the nuances of benefit sharing in both global health research and bioprospecting. The review findings indicate that each of these principles of justice provides a different perspective for a different benefit sharing rationale. For example, commutative justice provides a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on fair exchange of benefits between research sponsors and communities. Distributive justice produces a benefit sharing rationale that is focused on improving the health needs of the vulnerable research communities. We have suggested that a good benefit sharing framework particularly in global health research would be more beneficial if it combines all the principles of justice in its formulation. Nonetheless, there is a need for empirical studies to examine the various principles of justice and their nuances in benefit sharing among stakeholders in global health research.

Keywords

Benefit sharing Justice Post-trial obligations Resource-limited countries Research ethics 

References

  1. Ambrose, M.L., and A. Arnaud. 2005. Are procedural justice and distributive justice conceptually distinct? In Handbook of organizational justice, edited by J. Greenberg and J. Colquitt, 59–84. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Bachmann, A. 2011. Ethical aspects of access and benefit-sharing (ABS): Environment. Zurich: Swiss Federal Council.Google Scholar
  3. Ballantyne, A. 2008. “Fair benefits” accounts of exploitation require a normative principle of fairness: Response to Gbadegesin and Wendler, and Emanuel et al. Bioethics 22(4): 239–244.Google Scholar
  4. Ballantyne, A. 2010. How to do research fairly in an unjust world. American Journal of Bioethics 10(6): 26–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beauchamp, T., and J. Childress. 2009. Principles of biomedical ethics, 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Benatar, S.R. 2000. Avoiding exploitation in clinical research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9(4): 562–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernard, T.J., and R.S. Engel. 2001. Conceptualizing criminal justice theory. Justice Quarterly 18(1): 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bone, R.G. 2003. Agreeing to fair process: The problem with contractarian theories of procedural fairness. Boston University Law Review 83(1): 485–552.Google Scholar
  9. Brody, B.A. 2010. Intellectual property, state sovereignty, and biotechnology. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20(1): 51–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Castle, D., and E.R. Gold. 2007. Traditional knowledge and benefit sharing: From compensation to transaction. In Accessing and sharing the benefits of the genomics revolution, edited by P.W.B. Phillips and C.B. Onwueke, 65–79. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castree, N. 2003. Bioprospecting: From theory to practice (and back again). Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 28(1): 35–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CBD. 1992. Convention on biological diversity. Rio de Janeiro: UNEP.Google Scholar
  13. Chennells, R. 2010. Toward global justice through benefit sharing. The Hastings Center Report 40(1): 3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Coolsaet, B., and J. Pitseys. 2015. Fair and equitable negotiations? African influence and the international access and benefit-sharing regime. Global Environmental Politics 15(2): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daniels, N. 2008. Just health: Meeting health needs fairly, 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Dauda, B., and K. Dierickx. 2013. Benefit sharing: An exploration on the contextual discourse of a changing concept. BMC Medical Ethics 14: 36. doi: 10.1186/1472-6939-14-36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Denier, Y. 2007. Efficiency justice and care: Philosophical reflections on scarcity in healthcare. Leuven: Leuven University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Durocher, E., S. Rappolt, and B.E. Gibson. 2013. Occupational justice: Future directions. Journal of Occupational Science 21(4): 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gbadegesin, S., and D. Wendler. 2006. Protecting communities in health research from exploitation. Bioethics 20(5): 248–253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill, R.A. 2002. Compensatory justice: Over time and between groups. Journal of Political Philosophy 10(4): 392–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holmila, E. 2005. Common heritage of mankind in the law of the sea. Acta Societatis Martensis 1(1): 187–205.Google Scholar
  22. Hughes, R.C. 2014. Justifying community benefit requirements in international research. Bioethics 28(8): 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. HUGO. 2000. Hugo ethics committee statement on benefit sharing April 9, 2000. Clinical Genetics 58(5): 364–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. HUGO Ethics Committee. 2000. HUGO urges genetic benefit-sharing. Community Genetics 3(2): 88–92.Google Scholar
  25. De Jonge, B. 2010. What is fair and equitable benefit-sharing? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24(2): 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Jonge, B., and M. Korthals. 2006. Vicissitudes of benefit sharing of crop genetic resources: downstream and upstream. Developing World Bioethics 6(3): 144–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kamuya, D.M., V. Marsh, P. Njuguna, P. Munywoki, M. Parker, and S. Molyneux. 2014. “When they see us, it’s like they have seen the benefits!” Experiences of study benefits negotiations in community-based studies on the Kenyan coast. BMC Medical Ethics 15: 90. doi: 10.1186/1472-6939-15-90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Korthals, M., and B. De Jonge. 2009. Two different ethical notions of benefit sharing of genetic resources and their implications for global development. New Genetics and Society 28(1): 87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. London, A.J. 2005. Justice and the human development approach to international research. The Hastings Center Report 35(1): 24–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. London, A.J., and J.S. Zollman. 2010. Research at the auction block: Problems for the fair benefits approach to international research. The Hastings Center Report 40(4): 34–45.Google Scholar
  31. McGrew, A. 2004. Cosmopolitanism and global justice. Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies 3(1): 1–17.Google Scholar
  32. Miller, D. 2008. National responsibility and global justice. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11(4): 383–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Millum, J. 2010. How should the benefits of bioprospecting be shared? The Hastings Center Report 40(1): 24–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Ndebele, P., J. Mfutso-Bengo, and T. Mduluza. 2008. Compensating clinical trial participants from limited resource settings in internationally sponsored clinical trials: A proposal. Malawi Medical Journal 20(2): 42–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Participants in the Conference on Ethical Aspects of Research in Developing Countries. 2004. Moral standards for research in developing countries. The Hastings Center Report 34(3): 17–27.Google Scholar
  36. Petryna, A. 2007. Clinical trials offshored: On private sector science and public health. Bio Societies 2(1): 21–40.Google Scholar
  37. Pogge, T. 2001. Priorities of global justice. Metaphilosophy 32(1): 6–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pratt, B., and B. Loff. 2011. Justice in international clinical research. Developing World Bioethics 11(2): 75–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pratt, B., and B. Loff. 2014. A framework to link international clinical research to the promotion of justice in global health. Bioethics 28(8): 387–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Pullman, D., and A. Latus. 2003. Clinical trials, genetic add-ons, and the question of benefit-sharing. The Lancet 362(9379): 242–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rawls, J. 1999a. A theory of justice, revised ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Rawls, J. 1999b. The law of peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Resnik, D.B. 2004. The distribution of biomedical research resources and international justice. Developing World Bioethics 4(1): 42–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Sadurski, W. 1984. Social justice and legal justice. Law and Philosophy 3(3): 329–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schroeder, D. 2007. Benefit sharing: It’s time for a definition. Journal of Medical Ethics 33(4): 205–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Schroeder, D. 2009. Justice and benefit sharing. In Indigenous peoples, consent and benefit sharing: Lessons from the San-Hoodia case, edited by R. Wynberg, 11–27. New York: Springer Science+Bussiness Media.Google Scholar
  47. Schroeder, D., and C. Lasén-Díaz. 2006. Sharing the benefits of genetic resources: From biodiversity to human genetics. Developing World Bioethics 6(3): 135–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Schroeder, D., and B. Pisupati. 2010. Ethics, justice and the convention on biological diversity. Lancashire: UNEP.Google Scholar
  49. Schroeder, D., and T. Pogge. 2009. Justice and the convention on biological diversity. Ethics and International Affairs 23(3): 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schuklenk, U., and A. Kleinsmidt. 2006. North-South benefit sharing arrangements in bioprospecting and genetic research: A critical ethical and legal analysis. Developing World Bioethics 6(3): 122–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Simm, K. 2005. Benefit-sharing: An inquiry regarding the meaning and limits of the concept in human genetic research. Life Sciences, Society and Policy 1(2): 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Simm, K. 2007a. Benefit sharing frameworks—justifications for and against benefit sharing in human genetic research. A report of GenBenefit. https://www.uclan.ac.uk/research/explore/projects/assets/cpe_genbenefit_frameworks.pdf. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  53. Simm, K. 2007b. Benefit-sharing: A look at the history of an ethics concern. Nature Reviews Genetics 8(1): 496. doi: 10.1038/nrg2145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Strech, D., and N. Sofaer. 2011. How to write a systematic review of reasons. Journal of Medical Ethics 38(2): 121–126.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Tindana, P.O., J.A. Singh, C. Shawn Tracy, et al. 2007. Grand challenges in global health: Community engagement in research in developing countries. PLoS Medicine 4(9): 1451–1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Parijs, P. 2007. International distributive justice. In A companion to comparative political philosophy, 2nd ed., edited by R. Goodin, P. Pettit, and T. Pogge, 638–652. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  57. Vermeylen, S. 2007. Contextualizing “fair” and “equitable”: The San’s reflections on the Hoodia benefit-sharing agreement. Local Environment 12(4): 423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Pty Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Department of Public Health and Primary CareLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations