Although transplantation surgeries are relatively successful and save the lives of many, only few are willing to donate organs. In order to better understand the reasons for donation or refusing donation and their implications on and influence by public policy, we conducted a survey examining public views on this issue in Israel. Between January and June 2010, an anonymous questionnaire based on published literature was distributed among random and selected parts of Israeli society and included organ recipients, organ donors, soldiers, university and high school students, and the general population. The analysis of 799 questionnaires revealed that, although 74.7 percent have not signed a donor card, 60.8 percent of participants consider doing so. Additionally, 54.3 percent of respondents objected to giving or receiving compensation for donation, and, if at all, priority in transplantation care is the most desired form of such compensation. The health status of the donor and knowing that donation saves lives or that there exists a shortage of organs for transplantation are the two factors most affecting motivation to donate. Lack of information, relatives’ views on donation, and type of organ involved in donation are factors most inhibiting donation. Willingness to donate is significantly affected by the proximity of the recipient to the donor. With regard to most organs, their contribution to one’s sense of “self” and its symbolic role strongly affects motivation to donate, except for donation to relatives. Compensation for organ donation has little effect on motivation to donate during life and after death. Our findings suggest new ways to construct a more effective public policy on this issue.
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Ethics approval under the auspices of the Faculty of Social Sciences Ethics Committee was obtained on January 25, 2010, and the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Education on May 12 and 25, 2010.
It is possible that living in a country that constantly experiences threats to security serves as a strong inhibiting factor for relatively young people, as this environment may discourage them from thinking about donating their organs to sustain mostly older people with chronic diseases. However, this hypothesis is best examined via qualitative research. Our survey suggests that Israelis provide more general indications for their resistance to the donation of organs to others.
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We would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Research Fund at Soroka University Medical Center and the help and advice of Dr. Or Catz in providing the statistical analysis for this study and of Mr. Ofir Lang (M.A.) for his superb administrative assistance. We also wish to thank Ms. Tamar Ashkenazi at the Israel Transplant Center for coordinating organ recipients and donors to participate in the survey and the many high school directors and teachers whose cooperation and good will enabled high response rates among high school students.
Statement of Competing Interests
The authors report no competing interests.
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Sperling, D., Gurman, G.M. Factors Encouraging and Inhibiting Organ Donation in Israel. Bioethical Inquiry 9, 479–497 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11673-012-9398-3
- Organ donation
- Compensation for organ donation
- Health policy