Organ Donation, Discrimination After Death, Anti-Vaccination Sentiments, and Tuberculosis Management
The British Medical Association Reinvigorates Public Debates on U.K. Organ Donation Policy
The British Medical Association (BMA), Britain’s union and professional association for doctors and medical students, is well-positioned both to spark and contribute to important social and political debates. In a recently published and highly publicised report, it has sought to do so in relation to policies concerning organ transplantation (BMA 2012). Inevitably, much of the debate that this report prompted in the media focused on the ethically more controversial questions: For example, its publication has reignited discussions on “elective ventilation.” But the report, whilst presenting the BMA’s ethical stance on a wide range of practical and policy questions concerning organ donation, is far from a controversial or partisan polemic. Rather, it is written in the spirit of engaged, public discussion, with a view to developing a consensus, improving U.K. health care, and saving many lives. It...
KeywordsOrgan Donation Smear Microscopy Indian Government British Medical Association Increase Donation Rate
The views expressed by the authors in the section “TB Management in India: Public Health, Ethics, Social Considerations, and Human Rights” are their own. These authors thank Jocalyn Clark, Peter A. Singer, Shane Green, Peter Small, Madhukar Pai, Anjali Nayyar, Sukriti Chauhan, David Gold, and Renaud Boulanger for their comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript.
Jerome Amir Singh and Anant Bhan drafted the manuscript. Ross E. Upshur provided key input thereon.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is the primary source of funding for the project related to “TB Management in India.” Jerome Singh also receives support from the Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa, which forms part of the Comprehensive International Program of Research on AIDS funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease at the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Ross E. Upshur also receives support from the University of Toronto’s Joint Centre for Bioethics through a Canada Research Chair and from the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto. The funders had no role in the decision to submit or in the preparation of this paper, other than providing comments on earlier drafts.
Conflict of interest
The authors associated with the section “TB Management in India” work on the ESC2 Program in Global Health, which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Earlier versions of the manuscript were circulated to program officers of the funder, who had an opportunity to provide comments.
- Bhatia, V. 2010. Enhancing private sector contribution to TB care in India. Geneva: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. http://tbpartnershipindia.org/documents/Enhancing%20private%20sector%20contribution%20to%20TB%20care%20in%20India.pdf.
- British Medical Association [BMA]. 2012. Building on progress: Where next for organ donation policy in the UK? London: British Medical Association.Google Scholar
- Cabinet Office Behavioural Insights Team. 2010. Applying behavioural insight to health. London: Cabinet Office.Google Scholar
- Deputy Director General, Head Central TB Division, Project Director RNTCP. 2011. No title. http://tbcindia.nic.in/pdfs/Letter_Serodiagnosis.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2012.
- Ghanashyam B. 2011. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Innovating to make a difference. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy 9(4): 381–384. http://www.expert-reviews.com/doi/pdf/10.1586/eri.11.18.
- Health Care Complaints Commission [HCCC]. 2010. Public warning about Australian Vaccination Network (AVN). http://web.archive.org/web/20110718000811/http://www.hccc.nsw.gov.au/Publications/Media-Releases/PUBLIC-WARNING-/default.aspx.
- Organ Donation Taskforce. 2008. Organs for transplants: A report from the Organ Donation Taskforce. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
- Sehgal, S., P.K. Dewan, L.S. Chauhan, S. Sahu, F. Wares, and R. Granich. 2007. Public-private mix TB activities in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, North India: Delivering dots via collaboration with private providers and non-governmental organizations. The Indian Journal of Tuberculosis 54(2): 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Specter, M. 2010. A deadly misdiagnosis: Is it possible to save the millions of people who die from TB? The New Yorker, November 15. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/11/15/101115fa_fact_specter. Accessed September 15, 2011.
- Steingart, K.R., M. Henry, S. Laal, et al. 2007a. A systematic review of commercial serological antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Thorax 62(10): 911–918.Google Scholar
- Steingart, K.R., M. Pai, and D. Dowdy. 2010. Serological tests for tuberculosis: The evidence is reviewed. Paper presented November 11 in Berlin, Germany. http://www.stoptb.org/wg/new_diagnostics/assets/documents/3.1_KarenSteingart_SerologicalTests.pdf.
- Stop TB Partnership. 2011. WHO warns against the use of inaccurate blood tests for active tuberculosis. http://www.stoptb.org/news/stories/2011/ns11_050.asp. Accessed September 15, 2011.
- Thaler, R., and C. Sunstein. 2009. Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Tuberculosis Coalition for Technical Assistance. 2009. International standards for tuberculosis care: Diagnosis, treatment, public health, 2nd edition. The Hague: Tuberculosis Coalition for Technical Assistance. http://www.tbcta.org/Uploaded_files/Zelf/ISTCReport2ndEdition1258118339.pdf.
- World Health Organization [WHO]. 2010a. Framework for implementing new tuberculosis diagnostics. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/tb/laboratory/whopolicyframework_july10_revnov10.pdf.
- World Health Organization [WHO]. 2010b. Global tuberculosis control 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241564069_eng.pdf.
- World Health Organization [WHO]. 2010c. Guidance on ethics of tuberculosis prevention, care and control. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241500531_eng.pdf.
- World Health Organization [WHO]. 2010d. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): 2010 global report on surveillance and response. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599191_eng.pdf.