Your Liberty or Your Life: Reciprocity in the Use of Restrictive Measures in Contexts of Contagion
- 1k Downloads
In this paper, we explore the role of reciprocity in the employment of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. Reciprocity should be understood as a substantive value that governs the use, level and extent of restrictive measures. We also argue that independent of the role reciprocity plays in the legitimisation the use of restrictive measures, reciprocity can also motivate support and compliance with legitimate restrictive measures. The importance of reciprocity has implications for how restrictive measures should be undertaken when preparing and evaluating public health responses to contagion.
KeywordsReciprocity Restrictive measures Infectious disease Ethics Quarantine Isolation Liberty
This research was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Dr Upshur is supported by the Canada Research Chair in Primary Care Research.
- Ackerman, B. 2006. Before the next attack: Preserving civil liberties in an age of terrorism. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Batlan, F.J. 2007. Law in the time of cholera: Disease, state power, and quarantines past and future. Temple Law Review 80: 53–122.Google Scholar
- Bensimon, C.M. 2008. Communicable disease control in the new millennium: A qualitative inquiry on the legitimate use of restrictive measures. (PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto).Google Scholar
- Blendon, R.J., J.M. Benson, and K.J.Weldon 2006a. Pandemic influenza and the public: Survey findings. Cambridge, MA: Harvard School of Public Health Project on the Public and Biological Security, available at: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/panflu/IOM_Avian_flu.ppt. Accessed 17 March 2009.
- Chapin, C.V. 1894. Pleasures and hopes of the health officer. In Papers of Charles V. Chapin, M.D, ed. F. P. Gorham. New York: The Commonwealth Fund.Google Scholar
- Coker, R. 2000. From chaos to coercion: Detention and the control of tuberculosis. New York: St. Martin.Google Scholar
- Coker, R., M. Thomas, K. Lock, and R. Martin. 2007. Detention and the evolving threat of tuberculosis: Evidence, ethics, and law. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35: 609–615.Google Scholar
- Department of Health, United Kingdom. 2007. Responding to pandemic influenza: The ethical framework for policy and planning. http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_080751. Accessed 17 March 2009.
- Dyzenhaus, D. 2006. The constitution of law: Legality in a time of emergency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Edmundson, W.A. 1998. Legitimate authority without political obligation. Law and Philosophy 17: 43–60.Google Scholar
- Enhorn v. Sweden (2005), European Court of Human Rights (application no. 56529/00)Google Scholar
- Harris, J., and S. Holm. 1995. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others? BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 311: 1215–1217.Google Scholar
- Ignatieff, M. 2005. The lesser evil: Political ethics in an age of terror. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
- Jacobson v. Massachusetts. 1905, 197 US 11Google Scholar
- Jew Ho v. Williamson. (1900), 103 F. 10 (C.C.N.D. Cal.)Google Scholar
- Koller, P. 2007. Law, morality and virtue. In In Working virtue: Virtue ethics and contemporary moral problems, ed. R.L. Walker, and P.J. Ivanhoe, 191–206. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Markel, H. 1999. Quarantine! East European Jewish immigrants and the New York City epidemics of 1892. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Nuffield Council on Bioethics. 2007. Public health: Ethical issues. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics.Google Scholar
- Ostrom, E., and J. Walker (Eds.). 2005. Trust and reciprocity: Interdisciplinary lessons for experimental research. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Powers, M., and R. Faden. 2006. Social justice: The moral foundations of public health and health policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Shah, N. 2001. Contagious divides: Epidemics and race in San Francisco’s Chinatown. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Taylor, C. 1985. Legitimation crisis? In Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers 2, 248–88. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Taylor, C. 1994. Alternative futures: Legitimacy, identity, and alienation in late twentieth century Canada. In Communitarianism: A new public ethics, ed. Markate Daly. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
- Trotter, G. 2007. The ethics of coercion in mass casualty medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Tyler, T.R. 2006. Why people obey the law. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic Ethics Working Group. 2005. Stand on guard for thee: Ethical considerations in preparedness planning for pandemic influenza. Toronto: Joint Centre for Bioethics, available at: www.jointcentreforbioethics.ca/people/documents/upshur_stand_guard.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2009.
- Upshur, R.E. 2002. Principles for the justification of public health intervention. Canadian Journal of Public Health 93: 101–103.Google Scholar
- Viens, A.M. Public health emergencies, in preparation.Google Scholar
- Viens, A.M., and R.E.G. Upshur. The concept of reciprocity, in preparation.Google Scholar
- Weiner, D.B. 2001. The citizen-patient in revolutionary and imperial Paris. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Williamson v. Wong Wai. (1900), 103 F. Rep. 10Google Scholar