Journal of Bioethical Inquiry

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 145–146 | Cite as


  • Donald EvansEmail author

It is ironic that what is purchased and applied for the protection of one’s health might turn out to be injurious to it. Yet we see this occurring constantly in the phenomenon of iatrogenic disease. Sometimes in these cases licensed medications surprise us with adverse side effects. It is difficult to eliminate this possibility though thorough testing demanded by the licensing process limits its occurrence. Additionally, guidance is offered on the use of medications in relation to other medications already used by the patient, as a further protection against drug-induced disease.

Cosmetic products such as sunscreens are not so well controlled in most countries. In some they are covered by common legislation such as the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in the USA. There the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for licensing such applications. Yet even that protection is flawed in the use of products containing nanoparticles of known safe substances such as Zinc Oxide. It...


Thalidomide Zinc Oxide Adverse Side Effect Cosmetic Product Animal Organ 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

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