Phase Field Modeling of Joint Formation During Isothermal Solidification in 3DIC Micro Packaging
- 603 Downloads
In this paper, a computational multi-phase field approach is utilized to study the formation of the Cu/Sn/Cu micro-joint in 3-Dimensional Integrated Circuits (3DICs). The method considers the evolution of the system during isothermal solidification at 250 °C for the case of two different interlayer thicknesses (5 and 10 µm). The Cu/Sn/Cu interconnection structure is important for the micro packaging in the 3DIC systems. The thermodynamics and kinetics of growth of η-Cu6Sn5 and ɛ-Cu3Sn interfacial intermetallics (IMCs) are investigated by coupling the multi-phase field method with CALPHAD approach. The interaction of the phases is addressed by assuming a metastable condition for the Cu/Sn reacting system. The simulations start with the nucleation and rapid growth of the η-Cu6Sn5 IMCs at the initial stage, the nucleation and growth of ɛ-Cu3Sn IMCs at the intermediate stage ending with the full consumption of Sn layer and the domination of ɛ-Cu3Sn IMCs at the later stages. In addition, comparing different diffusion rates through the grain boundary of η phases show that their morphology is the direct consequence of balance of kinetic forces. This work provides a valuable understanding of the dominant mechanisms for mass transport in the Cu/Sn/Cu low volume interconnections. The results show that the phase field modeling is successful in addressing the morphological evolution and growth of IMC layers in the 3DIC joint formation.
Keywords3DIC micro-packaging technology chemical equilibrium morphology phase field modeling phase transformation
The authors would like to acknowledge the ADA cluster in the Texas A&M Supercomputing Facility, for providing computing resources useful in conducting the research reported in this paper. The authors acknowledge Dr. Thien Duong and Mrs. Kubra Karayagiz for useful discussions. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under NSF Grant No. CMMI-1462255.
- 4.M. Ohyama, M. Nimura, J. Mizuno, S. Shoji, T. Nonaka, Y. Shinba, and A. Shigetou, Evaluation of Hybrid Bonding Technology of Single-Micron Pitch with Planar Structure for 3D Interconnection. Microelectron. Reliab. Google Scholar
- 8.M.S. Park, M.K. Stephenson, C. Shannon, L.A. Cáceres Díaz, K.A. Hudspeth, S.L. Gibbons, J. Muñoz-Saldaña, and R. Arróyave, Experimental and Computational Study of the Morphological Evolution of Intermetallic Compound (Cu6Sn5) Layers at the Cu/Sn Interface Under Isothermal Soldering Conditions, Acta Mater., 2012, 60, p 5125-5134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.C. Zhang and G. Sun, Fabrication cost analysis for 2D, 2.5D, and 3D IC designs. In 3D Systems Integration Conference (3DIC), 2011 IEEE International; 2012; pp. 1-4.Google Scholar
- 12.J.R. Davis, Copper and Copper Alloys, ASM International, Materials Park, 2001Google Scholar
- 13.J.-H. Shim and C.-S. Oh, Thermodynamic Assessment of the Cu-Sn System, Z. Fuer Met. Res. Adv. Tech., 1996, 87, p 205-212Google Scholar
- 27.V.I. Dybkov, Growth Kinetics of Chemical Compound Layers, Cambridge Int Science Publishing, Cambridge, 1998Google Scholar