Advertisement

Microstructural phenomena associated with micrometeoroid impact craters in aluminum and stainless steel

  • J. M. Rivas
  • S. Quinones
  • L. E. Murr
  • C.-S. Niou
  • A. H. Advani
  • D. J. Manuel
  • R. Birudavolu
Features Phenomena

Abstract

We explore the metallurgical and materials implications for hypervelocity impact crater formation in some representative materials exposed in space in low-Earth orbit. Radial cracks associated with small size (<0.2 mm) craters in anodized aluminum alloy illustrate the importance of impacting particle flux and size distributions. Novel sectioning and etching of selected craters in stainless steel bolt heads has illustrated the potential for detailed characterization of cracking, phase changes, and extreme deformation proximate to the crater wall while thin sections through the crater and selectively ion-milled to electron transparency have illustrated shock pressure effects on microstructures below the crater for the first time. The use of optical, acoustic, and electron microscopy is illustrated in the characterization of hypervelocity impact crater-related microstructures and these observations point to the essential role to be played by imaging techniques in understanding the environmental effects of space in low-Earth orbit on the behavior of materials and space structures.

Keywords

Anodize Aluminum Impact Crater Crater Depth Crater Wall Prevention Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J.W. Gehring, C.L. Meyers, and J.A. Charest: “Experimental Studies of Impact Phenomena and Correlation with Theoretical Models,” Seventh Symposium on Hypervelocity Impact, Tampa, FL, Nov 1965.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.G. Cour-Palais: “Hypervelocity Impact in Metals, Glass, and Composites,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 5, 1987, p. 221. See also ibid, p. 681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. Herrmann and J.S. Wilbeck: “Review of Hypervelocity Penetration Theories,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 5, 1987, p. 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H.A. Zook: Proc. SMRM Degradation Studies Workshop, 247–2631 NASA, Greenbelt, MD, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L.S. Schramm, D.J. McKay, H.A. Zook, and G.A. Robinson: Proc. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 16, 1985, p. 434.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.R. Laurance and D.E. Brownlee: “The Flux of Meteoroids and Orbital Space Debris Striking Satellites in Low Earth Orbit,” Nature, 323(11), 1986, p. 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    See “Meteoroid Environment Model—1969 (Near Earth to Lunar Surface, NASA Space Vehicle Design Criteria (Environment),” NASA SP-8013, 1969; “Meteoroid Environment Model—1970 (Interplanetary and Planetary),” NASA Space Vehicle Design Criteria (Environment), NASA SP-8038, 1970.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Lee, F. Hörz, M. Zolensky, M. Allbrooks, D.R. Atkinson, and C.G. Simon: “Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group Preliminary Results: Size Frequency Distribution and Spatial Density of Large Impact Features on LDEF,” LDEF—69 Months in Space: First Post-Retrieval Symposium, NASA Conference Publication 3134, Part I (A.S. Levine, Ed.), 1991, p. 477.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.W. Gehring: “Engineering Considerations in Hypervelocity Impact,” High Velocity Impact Phenomena, R. Kinslow, ed., Academic Press, NY, 1990, p. 463.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Schneider: “Velocity Dependence of Some Impact Phenomena,” Comet Halley Micrometeoroid Hazard Workshop, European Space Agency ESA SP-153, Oct 1979.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E.P. Bruce: “Review and Analysis of High Velocity Impact Data,” Fifth Symposium on Hypervelocity Impact, Denver, CO, Oct 1961.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F.C. Whipple: “Meteorites and Space Travel,” Astronomical J., No. 1161, 1947, p. 131.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Finckenor: “Meteoroid/Space Debris Impacts on MSFC LDEF Experiments,” LDEF—69 Months in Space: First Post-Retrieval Symposium, NASA Conference Publication 3134, Part I, A. Levine, ed., 1991, p. 435.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    See LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, vol. III(I), March 30, 1992, p. 9.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L.E. Murr and M.F. Rose: “Thermal Recovery of Explosive Shock-Loaded Stainless Steel,” Philos. Mag., 18, 1968, p. 281.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    See Chapters 30, 37, and 42, by M.A. Meyers and L.E. Murr in Shock-Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena in Metals, M.A. Meyers and L.E. Murr, eds., Plenum, New York, 1981, pp. 487, 607, 753.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Rivas
    • 1
  • S. Quinones
    • 1
  • L. E. Murr
    • 1
  • C.-S. Niou
    • 1
  • A. H. Advani
    • 1
  • D. J. Manuel
    • 1
  • R. Birudavolu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringThe University of Texas at El PasoEl Paso

Personalised recommendations