Skip to main content

Failure Analysis of Basic Oxygen Furnace Lance Head Assembly

Abstract

In a steel plant, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) is a method to convert liquid hot metal and steel scrap into steel with oxidizing action of oxygen blowing into the melt. A water-cooled lance is used for blowing of pure gaseous oxygen (> 99.5%) at high pressure and flow rate of 11–13 kg/cm2 and ~ 1000 Nm3/min, respectively. A failure of BOF lance head assembly occurred in one of the integrated steel plants. A small oxygen leak ignited near the flange and a significant portion of the oxygen pipe elbow was consumed. The failure analysis was carried out, and likely reasons for the failure were identified. During the BOF process, oxygen is blown at high velocity into molten, carbon-saturated hot metal as received from blast furnaces. Oxygen reacts with carbon to form carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases, among other reactions. The occurrence of flames, metal spitting and post-combustion of CO gas generates high-temperature conditions that can damage the oxygen lance assembly. They can also cause changes in microstructure of the parent material (low-carbon-grade SS310S) of the elbow and weaken the material over a period of time. It was found that the presence of a minute puncture in the oxygen pipe line may, under thermodynamically favorable conditions, ignite the leaking oxygen. Such a minute leakage may have occurred due to failure of material, weld joint or detachable joint.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. I.V. Samarasekera, Mathematical modeling of thermal stresses in basic oxygen furnace hood tubes. Metall. Trans. B 16(2), 247–261 (1985)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. K. Kishore, S. Mukhopadhyay, G. Mukhopadhyay, M. Adhikary, S. Bhattacharyya, Movable hood tube in LD convertor: failure analysis and coating solution. Eng. Fail. Anal. 105, 25–39 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. P.K. Das, S. Sarkar, S.K. Ajmani, Transient thermal stress analysis of BOF hood failure. J. Fail. Anal. Prev. 17, 496–504 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. S. Das, K. Kishore, M. Adhikary, Metallurgical investigation of tie rod used for lifting ferro-alloy during steel making: a safety issues. J. Steel Struct. Constr. (an open access journal) 6(1), 2472-0437 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  5. U. Pal, G. Mukhopadhyay, Creep failure analysis of tie rod used in lifting steel vessels. Eng. Fail. Anal. 104, 300–307 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. M. Venkata Lakshmi, K.V.V.N.R. Chandra Mouli, Study of oxygen blowing lance and it’s drive mechanism in LD converters. Int. J. Mag. Eng. Technol. Manag. Res. 4(4), 53–62 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  7. A.J.Sedriks, Corrosion of Stainless Steels, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2nd edn. (Elsevier, 2001), pp. 1707–1708

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sanjay Kumar Gupta.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gupta, S.K., Deva, A., Toppo, S. et al. Failure Analysis of Basic Oxygen Furnace Lance Head Assembly. J Fail. Anal. and Preven. 20, 605–612 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11668-020-00866-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11668-020-00866-1

Keywords

  • BOF lance
  • BOF oxygen blowing
  • Quick detachable joint
  • Oxygen lancing