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Fire and Explosion Risks in Petrochemical Plant: Assessment, Modeling and Consequences Analysis


The oil and gas industry is a theater of major accidents such as fire, explosion and dispersion of toxic substances. The physicochemical properties of exploited materials in this industry and its operating techniques can contribute to the escalation of these hazards. The aim of this study is to assess and model the fire and explosion hazards of liquefaction natural gas in Algeria as long as this later plays an important role in gas industry and global energy markets in the next several years. The first step used in this study is the hazard identification using HAZID tool. This step is completed by DOW’s F&EI as a second step to predict and quantify mathematically the fire and explosion damages in the Scrub Column and the MCHE the most critical systems in the LNG unit. In order to better understand the hazards severity of these risks, PHAST software is used to model and simulate the accident scenarios. The results will reveal that the two principal equipments of liquefaction unit (Scrub Column–MCHE) present an important risk as per HAZID and they present a severe risk as per DOW’s F&EI. The modelization of fire and explosion scenarios using PHAST software gives us a real image about these hazards which presented by Fireball, Flash Fire, Early and Late explosion. The combination of HAZID, DOW’s F&EI and PHAST simulator leads to better risk assessment, and helps in creating preventive measures, and taking serious decisions to reduce and limit fire and explosion risks in order to save human life as a first goal, environment and installations as a second goal and to avoid the financial and economic loss of Algeria.

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Emergency shut down


General process hazard factor


Special process hazard factor


Process unit hazard factor


Fire and explosion index


Fire hazard analysis


Failure modes and effects analysis


Liquefaction natural gas complex—Skikda


Human reliability analysis


Hazard identification


Hazard and operability analysis


Low flammable limit


Liquid mixed refrigerant


Liquefied natural gas


Liquefied petrol gas


Main cryogenic heat exchanger


Material factor


Mixed refrigerant


National fire protection association


Process hazard analysis


Safety integrity level


Vapor cloud explosion


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Correspondence to Bekhouche Saloua.

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Saloua, B., Mounira, R. & Salah, M.M. Fire and Explosion Risks in Petrochemical Plant: Assessment, Modeling and Consequences Analysis. J Fail. Anal. and Preven. 19, 903–916 (2019).

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  • F&EI
  • Liquefaction unit
  • Scrub column
  • MCHE