Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 1241–1250 | Cite as

Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Cr–Mn Austenitic Stainless Steel with Addition of Molybdate and Tungstate Under Stagnant and Flow Condition in NaCl Solution

  • Ankur V. Bansod
  • Awanikumar P. Patil
  • Saurabh Suranshe
  • Ashish Dahiwale
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


Molybdate and tungstate inhibitors were introduced in stagnant and flowing conditions for determining pitting corrosion resistance of Cr–Mn SS in chloride-containing media. Corrosion behavior was investigated using potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in different NaCl concentrations (1, 2% and 3 wt.%). It was found that increase in NaCl concentration increases the corrosion rate. The addition of 0.01 M inhibitors decreased the corrosion rate in Cr–Mn SS. Better corrosion resistance was found with the addition of molybdate in stagnant conditions. However, the opposite behavior was observed in flowing conditions, but there was an increase in E pit with addition of molybdate. Additionally, the mechanism of the corrosion attack developed on the material surface after polarization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS mapping and point scan). The inhibition effect of the additions was due to a more stable passive film against Cl ions. Mn in the steel may cause opposite effect (initiation of the pits on steel), mainly due to the presence of MnS inclusions which acted as pitting initiators.


Cr–Mn SS Pitting Molybdate Tungstate Polarization Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy 


  1. 1.
    C. Novak, Handbook of Stainless Steels (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977), p. 1Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A.V. Bansod, A.P. Patil, A.P. Moon, N.N. Khobragade, Intergranular corrosion behavior of low-nickel and 304 austenitic stainless steels. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 25, 3615–3626 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Sumita, T. Hanawa, S.H. Teoh, Development of nitrogen-containing nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for metallic biomaterials—review. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 24, 753–760 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Werner, Solid solution and grain size hardening of nitrogen-alloyed austenitic steels. Mater. Sci. Eng. 101, 93–98 (1988)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Krakowiak, K. Darowicki, P. Slepski, Impedance investigation of passive 304 stainless steel in the pit pre-initiation state. Electrochim. Acta 50, 2699–2704 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Z. Szklarska-Smialowska, Mechanism of pit nucleation by electrical breakdown of the passive film. Corros. Sci. 44, 1143–1149 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    W.D. Robertson, Molybdate and tungstate as corrosion inhibitors and the mechanism of inhibition. J. Electrochem. Soc. 98, 94–100 (1951)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.M.S. El Din, L. Wang, Mechanism of corrosion inhibition by sodium molybdate. Desalination 107, 29–43 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Sugimoto, Simulation analysis of electrochemical nature of real passive films with artificial passivation films. Corros. Sci. 49, 63–71 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.T. Burstein, G.O. Ilevbare, The effect of specimen size on the measured pitting potential of stainless steel. Corros. Sci. 38, 2257–2265 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Mu, X. Li, Q. Qu, J. Zhou, Molybdate and tungstate as corrosion inhibitors for cold rolling steel in hydrochloric acid solution. Corros. Sci. 48, 445–459 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Ürgen, A.F. Çakir, The effect of molybdate ions on the temperature dependent pitting potential of austenitic stainless steels in neutral chloride solutions. Corros. Sci. 32, 835–852 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.S. Azambuja, E.M.A. Martini, I.L. Müller, Corrosion behaviour of iron and AISI 304 stainless steel in tungstate aqueous solutions containing chlorides. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 14, 570–576 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N.N. Khobragade, M.I. Khan, A.P. Patil, Corrosion behaviour of chrome-manganese austenitic stainless steels and AISI 304 stainless steel in chloride environment. Trans. Indian Inst. Met. 67, 263–273 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Sato, Toward a more fundamental under standing of corrosion processes. Corrosion 511, 495–511 (1990)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y.X. Qiao, Y.G. Zheng, W. Ke, P.C. Okafor, Electrochemical behaviour of high nitrogen stainless steel in acidic solutions. Corros. Sci. 51, 979–986 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Hitz, A. Lasia, Experimental study and modeling of impedance of the her on porous Ni electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem. 500, 213–222 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.A.M. Ibrahim, S.S. Abd El Rehim, M.M. Hamza, Corrosion behavior of some austenitic stainless steels in chloride environments. Mater. Chem. Phys. 115, 80–85 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    X. Zhang, D.W. Shoesmith, Influence of temperature on passive film properties on Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy C-2000. Corros. Sci. 76, 424–431 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Lopes-Sesenes, G.F. Dominguez-Patiño, J.G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. Uruchurtu-Chavarin, Effect of flowing conditions on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel by extract of buddleia perfoliata. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 8, 477–489 (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Krawiec, V. Vignal, O. Heintz, R. Oltra, Influence of the dissolution of MnS inclusions under free corrosion and potentiostatic conditions on the composition of passive films and the electrochemical behaviour of stainless steels. Electrochim. Acta 51, 3235–3243 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Pardo, M.C. Merino, A.E. Coy, F. Viejo, R. Arrabal, E. Matykina, Pitting corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steels—combining effects of Mn and Mo additions. Corros. Sci. 50, 1796–1806 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.M. Bastidas, C.L. Torres, E. Cano, J.L. Polo, Influence of molybdenum on passivation of polarised stainless steels in a chloride environment. Corros. Sci. 44, 625–633 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ankur V. Bansod
    • 1
  • Awanikumar P. Patil
    • 1
  • Saurabh Suranshe
    • 1
  • Ashish Dahiwale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT)NagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations