Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 796–801 | Cite as

Use of a Fracture Surface Cleaning Method to Evaluate Elevated Temperature Cracking in Steel

  • R. A. Wheeling
  • J. C. Lippold
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


The nature of cracking during continuous casting of steel strip was investigated. Samples removed from steel strip for fractographic analysis were heavily oxidized, preventing effective evaluation of the fracture surface. In order to remove the oxidation from the fracture surface, a modification of a procedure developed by Kayafas (Corrosion 36(8):443–445, 1980) was used. Pre- and post-cleaning SEM fractographs illustrated the effectiveness of the cleaning method. The results show that the fracture surface cleaning method successfully removes the surface oxide without compromising the original fracture surface. Using this method, the intergranular nature of the cracking that occurs during strip casting was clearly delineated.


Failure analysis Cracking Electron fractography Fractography Steel High temperature 



The authors would like to thank Wal Blejde, Rama Mahapatra, Mark Schlichting, and Tao Wang from NUCOR Castrip for providing the samples and enriching discussion in this study.


  1. 1.
    I. Kayafas, Technical note: corrosion product removal from steel fracture surfaces for metallographic examination. Corrosion 36(8), 443–445 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ASM Handbook, Fractograpy, vol. 12, (ASM International, 1987), pp. 74–75. ISBN 0-87170-007-7Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.S. Vecchio, R.W. Hertzberg, An examination of cleaning techniques for post-failure analysis, in Fractography of Ceramic and Metal Failures, ed. by J.J. Mecholsky Jr., S.R. Powell Jr. (ASTMSTP827, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, 1984), pp. 267–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Nishida, Failure Analysis in Engineering Applications (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2014), p. 8Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.O. Ibidunni, Fractography in the failure analysis of corroded fracture surfaces, in Fractography of Modern Engineering Materials: Composites and Metals, ed. by J.E. Masters, J.J. Au (ASTM STP 948, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1987), pp. 366–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Madeyski, Pracktische Metallographie. 17, 598–607 (1980)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.S. Lane, J. Ellis, Short communication: the examination of corroded fracture surfaces in the scanning electron microscope. Corros. Sci. 11, 661–663 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pepi M (2008) Sample preservation-the key to a successful failure analysis. Army Research Laboratory (ARL-RP-228), Reprint from the Proceedings of MFPT 62, Virginia Beach, VA, 6–8 May 2008Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.C. Lippold, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability (Wiley, Hoboken, 2015), pp. 130–147Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ohio State University - Welding Engineering ProgramColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations