Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 326–332 | Cite as

Mixed-Mode Crack Propagation in Cruciform Joint using Franc2D

  • A. M. Al-Mukhtar
Tools and Techniques


The focus of this research was on determining the cracking behavior when parameter such as the biaxiality ratio was varied. The crack propagation under mixed-mode loading was simulated by means of finite element method. The stress intensity factors have been calculated by the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach using fracture analysis code-2D (Franc2D). The crack growth under opening mode-I was considered because the crack growth occurs mainly along the direction where the mode-I stress component becomes the maximum. The numerical integration of Paris’ equation was carried out. The effect of normal and transverse applied load (σ x, and σ y, respectively) on crack propagation was presented. It was found that the fatigue crack growth was faster at a smaller biaxial stress ratio (λ), i.e., higher σ y on the horizontal crack plan. Moreover, fatigue strength values decrease as λ decreases. The results confirm the use of fracture mechanics approach in biaxial fracture.


Biaxial fatigue Biaxial stress ratio Cruciform joint Franc2D Mixed-mode fracture 



The author would like to thankfully appreciate the support received from the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology. The fruitful discussions with Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Biermann, and Dr.-Ing. S. Henkel, are also gratefully acknowledged. The kind support from Prof. Dr. habil. Broder J. Merkel, TU Freiberg, is highly appreciated.


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© ASM International 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research FellowTechnische Universität Bergakademie FreibergFreibergGermany
  2. 2.Automated Manufacturing Engineering DepartmentAl-Khwarizmi College of Engineering, University of BaghdadBaghdadIraq

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