Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 480–485 | Cite as

Liquid Metal Embrittlement of Austenitic Stainless Steel Fitting Caused by Copper Contamination

  • Binoy Padmanabhan
  • Pandurang Salunkhe
  • Deepashri Nage
Case History---Peer-Reviewed


A failure was observed in an 18″ long radius elbow of ASTM A403 WP 304-WX grade, during site fabrication and erection activities. All the welded fittings used were manufactured from SS 304 plates by the Monaka process [ 1], which involves cold forming of plates and subsequent welding of the formed halves. The fabrication sequence followed by the fitting manufacturer is shown in Fig.  1.


Welding Liquid Metal Austenitic Stainless Steel Copper Alloy Weld Seam 
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  1. 1.
    Japan Benkan Corporation, Manufacturing Butt Weld Fittings.
  2. 2.
    M.H. Kamdar, Metals Handbook, Liquid-Metal Embrittlement, vol. 11 (ASM International, Metals Park, 1986), pp. 225–244Google Scholar
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    G.F. Vander Voort, Metals Handbook, Failure of Locomotive Axles, vol. 11 (ASM International, Metals Park, 1986), pp. 715–727Google Scholar
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    W.F. Savage, E.P. Nippes, C. Mushala, Copper contamination cracking in the weld heat-affected zone. Weld. Res. (Miami, FL, USA) 5(57), 145-s–152-s (1978)Google Scholar
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    W.F. Savage, E.F. Nippes, C. Mushala, Liquid metal embrittlement of the heat affected zone by copper contamination. Weld. Res. (Miami, FL, USA) 5(57), 237-s–245-s (1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Binoy Padmanabhan
    • 1
  • Pandurang Salunkhe
    • 1
  • Deepashri Nage
    • 1
  1. 1.Research & DevelopmentL&T Hydrocarbon Engineering Ltd.MumbaiIndia

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