Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 503–512 | Cite as

Qualification Approach of a High-Pressure Compressor Drum of a Military Turbofan Engine for Structural Integrity and Life

  • R. K. Mishra
  • L. Prakash
  • S. N. Mistry
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


A multistage high-pressure compressor drum has been designed for a low bypass military turbofan engine. The complex mission profile of the engine with high throttle excursion demands reliable operation of the compressor throughout the flight envelope maintaining structural integrity. Therefore, qualification of the compressor drum for a fighter class engine is a challenge from the airworthiness point of view. This paper presents the methodology adopted and various stages of qualification, standards followed, and results based on which clearance has been accorded for fitment in engine and engine on aircraft. The compressors thus fitted in engine have exhibited satisfactory performance and are at different stages in service.


Forging Damage Crack growth Cyclic strain 



The authors are very grateful to the General Manager, Engine Division, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and the Chief Executive (Airworthiness), CEMILAC for their kind permission for publishing this paper. The authors are also very thankful to the Regional Director, Aeronautical Quality Assurance (Engines) for his help and support during this research.


  1. 1.
    H. Cohen, G.F.C. Rogers, H.I.H. Saravanamuttoo, Gas Turbine Theory (Longman Group Limited, Essex, 1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. Giampaolo, The Gas Turbine Hand Book: Principles and Practices, 2nd edn. (Fairmont Press Inc., New York, 2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.J. Gallimore, Axial flow compressor design. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 213(5), 437–449 (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Keskin, D. Bestle, Application of multiobjective optimization to axial compressor preliminary design. Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 10(7), 581–589 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.P. Boyce, Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, 2nd edn. (Butterworth-Hienemann, New York, 2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Ghorbanian, M. Gholamrezaei, Axial Compressor Performance Map Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network, (ASME Turbo Expo 2007, GT2007-27165), pp. 1199–1208Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.P. Czachor, Unique Challenges for Bolted Joint Design in High-Bypass Turbofan Engines, vol. 127 (ASME, 2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Warikoo, R. Beaulieu, B. Mason, Stress analysis of turbo machinery discs having complex bolted flange design features. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2002Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Ahmad, A.V. Mirzamoghadam, Disc design and air system comparison between a single and a two stage high pressure turbine aero engine. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, 2000-GT-0610Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.S.J. Corran, S.J. Williams, Lifing methods and safety criteria in aero gas turbine engines. Eng. Fail. Anal. 14, 518–528 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.O. Peters, R.O. Ritchie, Influence of foreign-object damage on crack initiation and early crack growth during high-cycle fatigue of Ti-6Al-4V. Eng. Fract. Mech. 67, 193–207 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P.G. Frankel, P.J. Withers, M. Preuss, H.T. Wang, J. Tong, D. Rugg, Residual stress fields after FOD impact on flat and aerofoil-shaped leading edges. Mech. Mater. 55, 130–145 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.N. Servetnik, Energy-based method for gas turbine engine disk burst speed calculation. Proceedings of 28th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Maziere et al., Overspeed burst of elastoviscoplastic rotating disks—part I: analytical and numerical stability analyses. Eur. J. Mech. 28, 36–44 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Blüml et al., Qualification of Life Extension Schemes for Engine Components. RTO Meeting Proceedings 17 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Eylon, J.A. Hall, Fatigue behavior of beta processed titanium alloy IMI 685. Metall. Trans. A 8(6), 981–990 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Boyer, G. Welsch, E.W. Collings, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys (ASM International, Materials Park, 1994)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASM, Metals Handbook, vol. 2—Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials (ASM International 10th edn. 1990)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G.E. Dieter, D. Bacon, Mechanical Metallurgy (McGraw Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1986)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Mitchell, Melting, casting and forging problems in titanium alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 243(1–2), 257–262 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y.V.R.K. Prasad, T. Seshacharyulu, Processing maps for hot working of titanium alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 243(1–2), 82–88 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MIL-E-5007 D/E (AS), Military Specification for Engines, Aircrafts, Turbojet and Turbofan (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B.H. Maruthi et al., Modified disc model for over-speed burst margin with thermal load and disc speed corrections and compared with FE model. Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng. 1(2), 26–31 (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Ehrich, High speed balance procedure. Proceedings of the Ninth Turbomachinery Symposium, pp. 25–31Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Schultz, Electron Beam Welding (Abington Publishing Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington, 2004)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Larry Jeffus, Welding: Principle and Application (Delmer, New York, 2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P.I. Petrov, Electron Beam Welding Process, 7th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Defence Standard 00-970, Part 11/1, Annex AGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Military Standard MIL-STD-1783 Engine Structural Integration Program (1984)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    FAA Advisory Circular, Calibration test, Endurance test and Teardown inspection for turbine engine certification, AC No. 33.87-1 (2006)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    B.J. McDonnell, The Application of a Design Validation System and Accelerated Mission Testing to a Gas Turbine Engine Development. SAE Technical Paper, Doc. No. 780991 (1980)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Ebbs, Is the Traditional 150 Hour Endurance Test Outdated? Rolls-Royce Limited (1985)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Blanton, D, Wisler, A Brief History of Aircraft Engine Development at General Electric, 43rd Joint Propulsion Conference and Exibit, Cincinnati, 2007, AIAA 2007-5339Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Quentin Benetuillere, Revision of the Aircraft Engine Preliminary Design Platform of First Level, MS Thesis EGI-2014-080MSC EKV1050 (KTH School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Stockholm, 2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dominique Leguillon, Strength or toughness? A criterion for crack onset at a notch. Eur. J. Mech. A 21(1), 61–72 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regional Center for Military Airworthiness (Engines)BangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations