Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 873–882 | Cite as

Probability of Detection and False Detection for Subsea Leak Detection Systems: Model and Analysis

  • Alireda Aljaroudi
  • Faisal Khan
  • Ayhan Akinturk
  • Mahmoud Haddara
  • Premkumar Thodi
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


Ensuring the integrity of subsea process components is one of the primary business objectives of the oil and gas industry. Leak detection system (LDS) is one type of system used to safeguard reliability of a pipeline. Different types of LDS use different technologies for detecting and locating leaks in pipelines. One technology, which is gaining wide acceptance by the industry, is the fiber optic-based LDS. This technology has great potential for subsea pipeline applications. It is the most suited for underwater applications due to the ease of installation and reliable sensing capabilities. Having pipelines underwater in the deep sea presents a great challenge and a potential threat to the environment and operation. Thus, there is a need to have a reliable and effective system to provide the assurances that the monitored subsea pipeline is safe and functioning as per operating conditions. Two important performance parameters that are of concern to operators are the probability of detection and probability of false alarm. This paper presents a probabilistic formulation of the probability of detection and probability of false detection for a fiber optic-based LDS.


Probability of detection (PD) Probability of false alarm (PFA) Leak detection system (LDS) Oil and gas pipeline 



Brillouin-Stimulated scattering


Continuous wave


Leak detection system


Noise Power


Probability of detection


Probability of false alarm


Probability of missed detection


Signal-to-noise ratio


Speed of light (Km/s)


Location of the temperature change

\({\raise0.7ex\hbox{${{\text{d}}P}$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{\text{d}}P} {{\text{d}}T}}}\right.\kern-0pt} \!\lower0.7ex\hbox{${{\text{d}}T}$}}\)

Temperature coefficient (mW/°C)

\({\raise0.7ex\hbox{${{\text{d}}P}$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{\text{d}}P} {{\text{d}}\varepsilon }}}\right.\kern-0pt} \!\lower0.7ex\hbox{${{\text{d}}\varepsilon }$}}\)

Strain coefficient (mW/µε)


Refractive index


Effective area of the fiber


Effective length of the fiber




Reference power


Measured Brillouin power


Input probe power


Pulse power

\(\alpha_{\varepsilon }\)

Strain coefficient expressed in MHz/με


Temperature coefficient expressed in MHz/°C

\(\Delta \varepsilon\)

Strain change

\(\Delta T\)

Temperature change

\(\Delta T_{\text{measured}}\)

Measured temperature change


Minimum detectable temperature change


Acoustic velocity


Brillouin frequency shift


Pulse width


Wavelength of the incident light


Reference Brillouin frequency at no strain and at the ambient temperature (MHz)


Traveled time


Temperature change threshold



The authors gratefully acknowledge and appreciate the partial financial support provided by the Research & Development Corporation (RDC) of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Likewise, the authors greatly appreciate and thank ASME’s permission to publish this paper in the Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention.


  1. 1.
    M. Nikles, Long-Distance Fiber Optic Sensing Solutions for Pipeline Leakage, Intrusion and Ground Movement Detection. Proc. SPIE 7316, 731601–7316013 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.F. Ulrich, E.P. Lehrmann, Telecommunications Research Trends (Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Park, G. Bolognini, D. Lee, P. Kim, P. Cho, F. Pasquale, N. Park, Raman-based distributed temperature sensor with simplex coding and link optimization. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1879–1881 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    X. Bao, L. Chen, Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors. Sensors 2012(12), 8601–8639 (2012). doi: 10.3390/s120708601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    X. Bao, M. DeMerchant, A. Brown, T. Bremner, Tensile and compressive strain measurement in the lab and field with the distributed Brillouin scattering sensor. J. Lightwave Technol. 19(11), 1698–1704 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edn. (Academic Press, New York, 2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. Pasquale, Long-range simplex-coded BOTDA sensor over 120 Km distance employing optical pre-amplification. Opt. Lett. 36(2), 232–234 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    X. Bao, L. Chen, Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors. Sensors 12, 8601–8639 (2012). doi: 10.3390/s120708601 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. Bao, D. Webb, D. Jackson, A 32-km distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin loss in optical fiber. Opt. Lett. 18(18), 1561–1563 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    X. Bao, J. Dhliwayo, N. Heron, D.J. Webb, D.A. Jackson, Experimental and theoretical studies on distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin scattering. J. Light Wave Technol. 13(7), 1340–1347 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Belal, Development of a High Spatial Resolution Temperature Compensated Distributed Strain Sensor, PhD Thesis, Physical and Applied Science Optoelectronics Research Center, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 2011Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, Optical-fiber-attenuation investigation using stimulated Brillouin scattering between a pulse and a continuous wave. Opt. Lett. 14, 408–410 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. R. Smith, Characterization of the Brillouin Loss Spectrum for Simultaneous Distributed Sensing of Strain and Temperature, MSc. Thesis, Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, NB, Canada, 1999AGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Brown, Improvement of a Brillouin Scattering based Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor, PhD Thesis, University of New Brunswick, 2006Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, R. Feced, V.A. Handerek, A. Rogers, Simultaneous distributed measurement of strain and temperature from noise-initiated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 645–659 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Smith, A. Brown, M. DeMerchant, X. Bao, Simultaneous distributed and temperature measurement. Appl. Opt. 38, 5382–5388 (1999B)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.C. Wait, T.P. Newson, Landau Placzek ratio applied to distributed fiber sensing. Opt. Commun. 122, 141–146 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T.D. Wickens, Elementary Signal Detection Theory (Oxford University Press Inc., New York, 2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, Y. Koyamada, Measurement of Temperature and Strain Distribution by Brillouin Frequency Shift in Silica Optical Fibers, in SPIE Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors, vol. 1797 (11) (1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireda Aljaroudi
    • 1
  • Faisal Khan
    • 1
  • Ayhan Akinturk
    • 2
  • Mahmoud Haddara
    • 1
  • Premkumar Thodi
    • 3
  1. 1.Memorial UniversitySt. John’sCanada
  2. 2.National Research CouncilSt. John’sCanada
  3. 3.INTECSEA, WorleyParsons GroupSt. John’sCanada

Personalised recommendations