Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 384–394 | Cite as

Strength Evaluation of Concrete Made with Dug-up Gravel from Southwestern Nigeria

  • Akinropo Musiliu Olajumoke
  • Fola Lasisi
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


Large expanses of natural deposits of gravel and sand are known to be available in many parts of the Southwestern Nigeria, which are being used for concrete production but with no standards. This study investigates the effects of using raw and washed dug-up gravel on the strength properties of concrete with a view to provide some standards for their usage. Field survey of quarry sites around Ile-Ife identified two commonly used dug-up gravel (Tiwantiwa), gravel A and (Majeroku), gravel B, which were selected for investigation. Prescribed mix proportions (measurements by weight) of 1:2:4 (cement:fine aggregate:washed/raw gravel) and 1:6 (cement:raw gravel) were used to produce the concrete cubes and beams for compressive and flexural strength tests. The results showed that using gravel A in raw form without sand and in washed form with sand have almost the same compressive strength (CS), while washing gravel B before use and with sand improved the CS of concrete. At 28 days, the CSs of concretes made from raw with no sand (RNS) of gravels A and B were 17.07 and 12.47 N/mm2, while those of raw with sand (RWS) and washed with sand (WWS) were 14.73 and 16.80 N/mm2 for gravel A and 11.93 and 16.00 N/mm2 for gravel B, respectively. Characteristic strength of 15 N/mm2 is recommended for concrete made with RNS and WWS of gravel A, while 11 and 14 N/mm2 are recommended for those of gravel B, respectively.


Dug-up gravel Compressive and characteristic strength Collapse of concrete structures Flexural strength Hydration Prescribed mix proportion Water absorption 



The authors acknowledge the assistance of Mr. Segun Omosore in taking the first author to the various dug-up quarry sites around Ile-Ife and environs during the field work and in supplying the gravel used in this study.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural EngineeringObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria

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