Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 410–418 | Cite as

Marine Atmospheric SCC of Unsensitized Stainless Steel Rock Climbing Protection

Case History---Peer-Reviewed

Abstract

A failure investigation into the root cause of fixed austenitic stainless steel climbing anchor hardware in tropical marine climates has been presented. The incident 316L climbing anchor was fixed in a seaside limestone cliff in southern Thailand and underwent transgranular chloride stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) after 10 years of service. Since stainless steel does not normally undergo stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at ambient temperatures, the conditions known to promote ambient temperature TGSCC of austenitic stainless steel are reviewed. A mechanism that may give rise to TGSCC in limestone climbing anchors in warm marine environments is postulated.

Keywords

Austenitic stainless steel Corrosion failure analysis Stress corrosion cracking Failure mechanism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Greg Barnes at American Safe Climbing Association (www.safeclimbing.org) for providing us with the sample and details on the corrosion and Jacques Rutschman for his initial inquiry into the corrosion of stainless steel.

References

  1. 1.
    Byrnes, J., Harper, S., Shelton, M.: The Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: New Warnings about Sea Cliff Bolts. American Safe Climbing Association (ASCA). http://www.safeclimbing.org/education/deepbluesea.htm (2003)
  2. 2.
    Gillespie, M.: Tower Karst of Peninsular Thailand. http://www.siue.edu/GEOGRAPHY/ONLINE/Gillespie.htm (2006)
  3. 3.
    Baker, E.A., Lee, T.S.: Long-term atmospheric corrosion behavior of various grades of stainless steel. In: Dean, S.W., Lee, T.S. (eds.) Degradation of Metals in the Atmosphere, ASTM STP 965, pp. 52–67. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA (1988)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balk, A.H.Th., Boon, J.W., Etienne, C.F.: Stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel fixings for façade panels. Br. Corros. J. 9(1), 4–9 (1974)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beavers, J.A., Koch, G.H., Berry, W.E.: Corrosion of metals in marine environments. Report MCIC-86-50, Metals and Ceramics Information Center, Columbus, OH (1986)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dillon, C.P.: Imponderables in chloride stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels. Mater. Perform. December, 66–67 (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Franks, R., Binder, W.O., Brown, C.M.: The susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to stress-corrosion cracking. In: Symposium on Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Metals, pp. 411–420, November 29–December 1, ASTM and AIME, Philadelphia, PA (1944)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gnanamoorthy, J.B.: Stress corrosion cracking of unsensitized stainless steels in ambient-temperature coastal atmosphere. Mater. Perform. December, 63–65 (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johns, D.R., Shemwell, K.: The crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance of austenitic and duplex stainless steel fasteners. Corros. Sci. 39(3), 473–481 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnson, M.J., Pavlik, P.J.: Atmospheric corrosion of stainless steel. In: Ailor, W.H. (ed.) Atmospheric Corrosion, pp. 461–473. Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, NY (1982)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kain, R.M.: Marine atmospheric stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels. Mater. Perform. December, 60–62 (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kawamoto, T.: External stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steels. Boshoku Gijutsu (Corros. Eng.) 37(1), 30–33 (1988)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khanna, A.S., Gnanamoorthy, J.B.: 34 – Atmospheric corrosion studies on stainless steels and a low alloy steel in a marine environment. In: Ailor, W.H. (ed.) Atmospheric Corrosion, pp. 489–499. Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, NY (1982)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Larsson, B., Gripenberg, H., Mellström, R.: Special stainless steels for topside equipment on offshore platforms. In: Stainless Steels ‘84, Proceedings, Conference, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. The Institute of Metals, London, pp. 452–462 (1984), published in 1985Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Logan, H.L.: The Stress Corrosion of Metals. Wiley, New York, NY (1966)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moller, G.E.: Designing with stainless steels for service in stress corrosion environments. Mater. Perform. May, 32–44 (1977)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Money, K.L., Kirk, W.W.: Stress corrosion cracking behavior of wrought Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in marine atmosphere. Mater. Perform. July, 28–36 (1978)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Muraleedharan, P.: Metallurgical influences on stress corrosion cracking. In: Khatak, H.S., Raj, B. (eds.) Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels, Mechanism, Mitigation, and Monitoring. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oldfield, J.W., Todd, B.: Ambient-temperature stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel in swimming pools. Mater. Perform. December, 57–58 (1990)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oldfield, J.W., Todd, B.: Room temperature stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in indoor swimming pool atmospheres. Br. Corros. J. 26(3), 173–182 (1991)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oldfield, J.W., Todd, B.: Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels in atmospheres in indoor swimming pools. In: Stainless Steels ‘91, Proceedings, Conference, Chiba, Japan, 10–13 June 1991, ISIJ, pp. 204–213 (1991)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sedriks, A.J.: Corrosion of Stainless Steels, p. 165. Wiley Interscience, New York, NY (1979)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sedriks, A.J.: Stress-corrosion cracking of stainless steels. In: Jones, R.H. (ed.) Stress-Corrosion Cracking – Materials Performance and Evaluation, chapter 4, pp. 91–130. ASM International, Materials Park, OH (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Speidel, M.O.: Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in NaCl solutions. Metall. Trans. A 12A(May), 779–789 (1981)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Staehle, R.W.: Understanding ‘situation-dependent strength:’ a fundamental objective in assessing the history of stress corrosion cracking. In: Proceedings, First International Conference, Environment-Induced Cracking of Metals, October 2–7, Kohler, WI, published 1990, NACE, pp. 561–577 (1988)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Truman, J.E.: Problems of stress corrosion cracking of steel in customer usage. In: Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement of Iron Base Alloys, June 12–16, Unieux-Firminy, France, NACE, published 1977, pp. 111–123 (1973)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Truman, J.E.: Influence of chloride content, pH and temperature of test solution on the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking with austenitic stainless steel. Corros. Sci. 17, 737–746 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Truman, J.E., Kirkby, H.W.: Possibility of service failure of stainless steels by stress corrosion cracking. Metallurgia 72(430), 67–71 (1965)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Truman, J.E., Pirt, K.R.: Note on the corrosion produced under deposits of chlorides on austenitic stainless steel. Corros. Sci. 17(1), 71–74 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shoji, S., Ohnaka, N., Furutani, Y., Saito, T.: Effects of relative humidity on atmospheric stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels. Boshoku Gijutsu (Corros. Eng.) 35(10), 559–565 (1986)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shoji, S., Ohnaka, N.: Effects of relative humidity and kinds of chlorides on atmospheric stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels at room temperature. Boshoku Gijutsu (Corros. Eng.) 38(2), 92–97 (1989)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    ASTM, Standard Practice for Evaluating Stress-Corrosion-Cracking Resistance of Metals and Alloys in a Boiling Magnesium Chloride Solution, ASTM G36–94 (Reapproved 2000). American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, West Conshohocken, PA (1994)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Snoeyink, V.L., Jenkins, D.: Water Chemistry. Wiley (1980)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stumm, W., Morgan, J.J.: Aquatic Chemistry: Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, NY (1995)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Elliott, P.: Materials selection for corrosion control. In: Cramer, S.D., Covino, B.S., Jr. (eds.) Volume 13A: Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection, ASM Handbook, pp. 909–928 (2003)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Logan, H.L., McBee, M.J., Romanoff, M.: Mater. Res. Stand. 3(8), 635 (1963)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Logan, H.L., McBee, M.J.: Stress-corrosion cracking of cold-reduced austenitic stainless steels. Mater. Res. Stand. April, 137–145 (1967)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ellis, O.B.: Some examples of stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel. In: Symposium on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Metals, November 29–December 1, pp. 421–424. ASTM and AIME, Philadelphia, PA (1944)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Galvele, J.R.: 1999 W.R. Whitney Award Lecture: past, present, and future of stress corrosion cracking. Corrosion 55(8), 723–731 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Roberts-Austen, W.C.: Proc. R. Inst. 11, 395 (1886)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rosenhain, W., Archbutt S.L.: Proc. R. Soc. 96A, 55 (1919)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moen, R.A., Duncan, D.R.: Cold work effects: a compilation of data for types 304 and 316 stainless steel. Report HEDL-TI-76005. Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Hanford, WA (1976)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    ASM, ASM Worldwide Guide to Equivalent Irons and Steels, 4th edn. ASM 2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bhattacharya, D.K., Jayakumar, T., Raj, B.: Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking failure in AISI type 316 stainless steel dished ends near weld joints. In: Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, vol. 2, pp. 126–127. ASM International (1993)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bhattacharya, D.K., Ghanamoorthy, J.B., Raj, B.: Transgranular stress-corrosion cracking failures in AISI 304L stainless steel dished ends during storage. In: Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, vol. 2, pp. 135–137. ASM International (1993)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Muraleedharan, P., Khatak, H.S., Gnanamoorthy, J.B.: Stress-corrosion cracking in stainless steel heater sheathing. In: Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, vol. 2, pp. 427–429. ASM International (1993)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Haselmair, H.: Stress corrosion cracking of type 303 stainless steel in a road tunnel atmosphere. Mater. Perform. June, 60–63 (1992)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Umemura, F., Matukura, S., Nakamura, H., Kawamoto, T.: Weathering tests and stainless-steel stress-corrosion cracking. Boshoku Gijutsu (Corros. Eng.) 36(9), 523–530 (1987)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arlt, N., Michel, E., Hirschfeld, D., Stellfeld, I.: Corrosion behaviour of stainless steels in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools. In: Processes & Materials: Innovation Stainless Steel, vol. 3, pp. 3.99–3.104. Florence, Italy, 11–14 October (1993)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    The Weather Underground, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI. http://www.wunderground.com (2008)
  51. 51.
    Cool Metal Roofing Coalition, Pittsburg, PA. http://www.coolmetalroofing.org/faqs.htm (2006)

Copyright information

© ASM International 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sjong Consulting, LLCBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Exponent, Inc.Menlo ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations