Skip to main content
Log in

Characterization and High-Temperature Fretting Wear Resistance of HVOF-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr, CoCrWC and CoCrWNiC Hardfacing Coatings

  • Peer Reviewed
  • Published:
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


In the present study, Cr3C2-25wt%NiCr, CoCrWC (Stellite-6) and CoCrWC (FSX 414) coatings were deposited by the high-velocity oxy-fuel process on Hastelloy X substrates. The microstructure of the coatings was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was employed to identify the phase composition of the coatings. Tensile bond strength, elastic modulus and Vickers microhardness of the coatings were measured. A self-mated fretting wear test was also carried out on the coatings at room temperature and 550 °C. The results showed that some carbide dissolution occurred during the formation of Cr3C2-NiCr coating, although the coating displayed the highest bonding strength, Vickers microhardness and elastic modulus. The Stellite-6 coating showed a significant amount of unmelted particles and the most surface roughness. Oxide stringers were the main microstructural defect of the FSX 414 coating. The Stellite-6 and Cr3C2-NiCr coating had the best fretting wear resistance at the temperature of 25 and 550 °C, respectively. The wear mechanisms of the hardfacing coatings were discussed in detail.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. “Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion,” G40-13, ASTM International, 2015, p 1-9

  2. P.J. Golden, Development of A Dovetail Fretting Fatigue For Turbine Engine Materials, Int. J. Fatigue, 2009, 31, p 620-628. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. C. Paulin, S. Fouvry and S. Deyber, Wear Kinetics of Ti-6Al-4V under Constant and Variable Fretting Sliding Conditions, Wear, 2005, 259, p 292-299. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. R. Rajendran, Gas Turbine Coatings (An Overview), Eng. Fail. Anal., 2012, 26, p 355-369. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. H. Koiprasert, S. Dumrongrattana and P. Niranatlumpong, Thermally Sprayed Coatings for Protection of Fretting Wear in Land-Based Gas-Turbine Engine, Wear, 2004, 257, p 1-7. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Y. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Ma, S. Meng, C. Liu and L. Long, A comparative study on wear and corrosion behavior of HVOF-and HVAF-sprayed WC–10Co–4Cr coatings, Surf Eng., 2017, 33, p 63-71. (in English)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. M. Oksa, E. Turunen, T. Suhonen, T. Varis and S.P. Hannula, Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Mater. Appl. Coat, 2011, 1, p 17-52. (in English)

    Google Scholar 

  8. A.S.M. Ang, H. Howse, S.A. Wade and C.C. Berndt, manufacturing of nickel based cermet coatings by the HVOF process, Surf Eng., 2016, 32, p 713-724. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. D. Ghosh and S.K. Mitra, Plasma sprayed Cr3C2–Ni–Cr coating for oxidation protection of 2·25Cr–1Mo steel, Surf. Eng., 2015, 31(5), p 342-348. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. V. Chaudhry and S.V. Kailas, Fretting Studies on Self-Mated Stainless Steel and Chromium Carbide Coated Surfaces under Controlled Environment Conditions, Wear, 2013, 301, p 524-539. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. E.J. Carrasquero, J. Lesage, E.S. Puchi-Cabrera and M.H. Staia, Fretting Wear of HVOF Ni–Cr Based Alloy Deposited on SAE 1045 Steel, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202(18), p 4544-4551. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. H. Singh, T.S. Sidhu, J. Karthikeyan and S.B.S. Kalsi, Development and characterization of Cr3C2–NiCr coated superalloy by novel cold spray process, Mater. Manuf. Process., 2016, 31, p 1476-1482. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. P. Sassatelli, G. Bolelli, M.L. Gualtieri and E. Heinonen, Properties of HVOF-Sprayed Stellite-6 Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2018, 338, p 45-62. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. S.A.A. Dilawary, A. Motallebzadeh, R. Akhter, E. Atar and H. Cimenoglu, Enhanced wear resistance of Stellite 12 by Mo addition and LSM, Surf. Eng., 2018, 34, p 569-576. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. C. Navas, A. Conde, M. Cadenas and J. De Damborenea, Tribological properties of laser clad Stellite 6 coatings on steel substrates, Surf. Eng., 2006, 22, p 26-34. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. N. Cinca and J.M. Guilemany, Cold Gas Sprayed Stellite-6 Coatings and Their Wear Resistance, Mater. Sci. Eng., 2013, 2, p 100-122. (in English)

    Google Scholar 

  17. M.S. Sawant and N.K. Jain, Evaluation of stellite coatings by µ-PTA powder, laser, and PTA deposition processes, Mater. Manuf. Process., 2018, 33, p 1043-1050. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. D.L. Oates, Microstructural Changes as a Time Temperature Indicator in Cobalt Superalloys and a NiCoCrAlTaY Coating, Ph. D. Thesis, Loughborough University, 2007.

  19. S. Deshpande, A. Kulkarni, S. Sampath and H. Herman, Application of image analysis for characterization of porosity in thermal spray coatings and correlation with small angle neutron scattering, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2004, 187(1), p 6-16. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. M. Roy, A. Pauschitz, J. Bernardi, T. Koch and F. Franek, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HVOF Sprayed Nanocrystalline Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) Coating, J. Therm. Spray. Techn., 2006, 15, p 372-381. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. S.T. Aruna, N. Balaji, J. Shedthi and V.K.W. Grips, Effect of Critical Plasma Spray Parameters on the Microstructure, Microhardness and Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, 208, p 92-100. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. O. Vingsbo and S. Söderberg, on fretting maps, Wear, 1988, 126, p 131-147. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. L. Pawlowski, the Science and Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, Wiley, (2008).

  24. P.L. Fauchais, J.V.R. Heberlein, M.I. Boulos, Thermal Spray Fundamentals: From Powder to Part, Springer Science and Business Media, 2014.

  25. S. Matthews, Carbide Dissolution/Carbon Loss as a Function of Spray Distance in Unshrouded/Shrouded Plasma Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings, J. Therm. Spray. Techn., 2015, 24, p 552-569. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. S. Matthews, A. Asadov, S. Ruddell and L.M. Berger, Thermally Induced Metallurgical Processes in Cr3C2-NiCr Thermal Spray Coatings as a Function of Carbide Dissolution, J. Alloy. Compd., 2017, 728, p 445-463. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Y. Ning, P.C. Patnaik, R. Liu, M.X. Yao and X.J. Wu, Effects of Fabrication Process and Coating of Reinforcements on the Microstructure and Wear Performance of Stellite Alloy Composites, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 2005, 391, p 313-324. (in English)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. H.J. Kim, S.Y. Hwang, C.H. Lee and P. Juvanon, Assessment of Wear Performance of Flame Sprayed and Fused Ni-Based Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 172, p 262-269. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. S. Zimmermann, H. Kreye, Chromium carbide coatings produced with various HVOF spray systems, ITSC 1996, Oct 7, ASM International, 1996, pp. 147-152

  30. S. Matthews, M. Hyland and B. James, Microhardness Variation in Relation to Carbide Development in Heat Treated Cr3C2–NiCr Thermal Spray Coatings, Acta Mater., 2003, 51, p 4267-4277. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. M. Taheri, Z. Valefi and K. Zangeneh-Madar, Influence of HVOF process parameters on microstructure and bond strength of NiCrAlY coatings, Surf. Eng., 2012, 28, p 266-272. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. J. Archard, Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surface, J. Appl. Phys., 1953, 24, p 981-988. (in English)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33., 2015, Accessed February 2015

  34. Y. Fu, J. Wei and A.W. Batchelor, Some considerations on the mitigation of fretting damage by the application of surface-modification technologies, J. Mat. Proc. Technol., 2000, 99, p 231-245. (in English)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Z. Ren, F. Lai, S. Qu, Y. Zhang, X. Li and C. Yang, Effect of ultrasonic surface rolling on surface layer properties and fretting wear properties of titanium alloy Ti5Al4Mo6V2Nb1Fe, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2020, 389, 125612. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. A.G. Bulnes, V.A. Fuentes and I.G. Cano, Understanding the Influence of High Velocity Thermal Spray Techniques on the Properties of Different Anti-Wear WC-Based Coatings, Coatings, 2020, 10, p 1157. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. G.C. Ji, C.J. Li, Y.Y. Wang and W.Y. Li, Microstructural characterization and abrasive wear performance of HVOF sprayed Cr3C2–NiCr coating, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 200, p 6749–6757. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. H.L. Yao, C. Yang, D.L. Yi, M.X. Zhang and H.T. Wang, Microstructure and mechanical property of high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed WC-Cr3C2-Ni coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2020, 397, 126010. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. A. Motallebzadeh, E. Atar and H. Cimenoglu, Sliding wear characteristics of molybdenum containing Stellite 12 coating at elevated temperatures, Tribol. Int., 2015, 91, p 40-47. (in English)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors wish to express their gratitude to Mehdi Baghaei for his cooperation in fretting wear tests.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pejman Zamani.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zamani, P., Ghasemi, R., Torabi, S. et al. Characterization and High-Temperature Fretting Wear Resistance of HVOF-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr, CoCrWC and CoCrWNiC Hardfacing Coatings. J Therm Spray Tech 31, 2157–2171 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: