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Simulation of Supersonic High-Pressure Gas Atomizer for Metal Powder Production


A comprehensive study was performed on the atomization of molten stainless steel in a high-pressure gas atomizer (HPGA). Computer simulations were carried out using ANSYS-FLUENT to model the supersonic, turbulent flow of the atomization gas. Particle tracking and solidification were also included in the model to determine the fate of molten particles within the atomizer. Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of varying gas pressure and nozzle diameter on particle size distribution, melt flow rate, and pressure gradients on the surface of the nozzle. It is shown that increasing the atomization pressure leads to a finer powder size distribution, but a lower powder throughput. The results and conclusions provided in this work provide a valuable insight into how various operating parameters can affect the performance of HPGAs for metal powder synthesis. The findings can be used to improve the design of these systems in terms of efficiency, throughput, and product quality.

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\(v\), \(u\) :


\(r\) :

Radial coordinate

\(x\) :

Axial coordinate

\(\rho\) :

Gas density

\(p\) :


\({\mu }_{eff}\) :

Effective viscosity of gas

\(F\) :

Force (source term for momentum equation)

\(k\) :

Turbulent kinetic energy

\(\omega\) :

Specific dissipation rate

\({\tau }_{ij}\) :

Deviatoric stress tensor (viscous heating)

\(\Gamma\) :

Effective diffusivity

\(\mathrm{G}\) :

Production of turbulent kinetic energy or specific dissipation rate

\(\mathrm{Y}\) :

Dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy or specific dissipation rate

\(S\) :

Modulus of the mean rate of strain tensor

\(E\) :

Total energy

\({k}_{eff}\) :

Effective thermal conductivity of gas

\({S}_{h}\) :

Source term for energy equation

\(Pr\) :

Prandtl number

\({c}_{p}\) :

Specific heat capacity of gas

\(T\) :


\(\overrightarrow{g}\) :

Gravitation acceleration

\({\rho }_{p}\) :

Density of particle

\({\tau }_{r}\) :

Particle relaxation time

\({d}_{p}\) :

Diameter of particle

\({C}_{d}\) :

Drag coefficient

\(Re\) :

Reynolds number

\({\mu }_{s}\), \({\mu }_{l}\) :

Dynamic viscosity of solid or liquid particle

\({C}_{s}, {C}_{l}\) :

Specific heat capacity of solid or liquid particle

\(\Delta H\) :

Latent heat of fusion

\({T}_{s}\), \({T}_{l}\) :

Solidus or liquids temperature


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This work was financially supported by the Scientific Research Fund of High-end Control Valve Industry Technology Collaborative Innovation Center (No. 2018640001000067). Financial support of the Ningxia University and Wuzhong Instrument Company is gratefully acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Javad Mostaghimi.

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Zhang, S., Alavi, S., Kashani, A. et al. Simulation of Supersonic High-Pressure Gas Atomizer for Metal Powder Production. J Therm Spray Tech (2021).

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  • CFD simulation
  • close-coupled atomizer
  • high-pressure gas atomization
  • metal powder synthesis