Advertisement

Post-processing of Ni-Cr-Al2O3 Thermal Spray Coatings Through Friction Stir Processing for Enhanced Erosion–Corrosion Performance

  • M. Rani
  • G. Perumal
  • M. Roy
  • H. S. Grewal
  • H. Singh
  • H. S. AroraEmail author
Peer Reviewed
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Thermal spray coatings are widely used for addressing erosion problems in fluid machineries. However, the presence of splat boundaries, non-homogeneous microstructure and element segregation limits their performance. In this study, we developed Ni-Cr-40Al2O3 coatings on stainless steel (SS316L) substrate using high-velocity flame spray followed by post-processing using friction stir processing. The performance of as-sprayed and processed coatings was evaluated in slurry erosion, erosion–corrosion and pure corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution. As-sprayed coating showed lower erosion and erosion–corrosion resistance compared to stainless steel. Friction stir processing resulted in significant microstructure refinement concurrent with enhanced hardness and fracture toughness of the developed coating. At oblique impingement angle, the processed coating showed nearly 30% to twofold higher erosion and erosion–corrosion resistance compared to stainless steel substrate. During pure erosion at normal impingement, both as-sprayed and processed coating showed higher volume loss. However, during erosion–corrosion at normal impingement, the processed coating was able to demonstrate similar volume loss as that of the substrate. In addition, the processed coating showed significant improvement in the corrosion performance as well. The study showed that friction stir processing could be a promising pathway to unravel the deleterious effects of inherent non-homogeneities in thermal spray coatings.

Keywords

erosion–corrosion, corrosion friction stir processing post-processing slurry erosion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Naval Research Board (NRB), Project Number: NRB-399/MAT/17-18.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Fasching, F. Prinz, and L. Weiss, “Smart” Coatings: A Technical Note, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 1995, 4(2), p 133-136Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Bhagat, Deposition of Nickel–Aluminum Bronze Powder by Cold Gas-Dynamic Spray Method on 2618 Al for Developing Wear Resistant Coating, in Proceedings of 1st UTSC, 1997, (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Toma, W. Brandl, and G. Marginean, Wear and Corrosion Behaviour of Thermally Sprayed Cermet Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2001, 138(2–3), p 149-158Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Kaushal and S. Singh, Slurry Erosion Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Coating on Turbine Steel, Ind. Lubr. Tribol., 2019, 71(1), p 1-9Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Rodrıguez, A. Martın, R. Fernández, and J. Fernández, An Experimental Study of the Wear Performance of NiCrBSi Thermal Spray Coatings, Wear, 2003, 255(7–12), p 950-955Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Barik, J. Wharton, R. Wood, K. Tan, and K. Stokes, Erosion and Erosion–Corrosion Performance of Cast and Thermally Sprayed Nickel–Aluminium Bronze, Wear, 2005, 259(1–6), p 230-242Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Santa, L. Espitia, J. Blanco, S. Romo, and A. Toro, Slurry and Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Thermal Spray Coatings, Wear, 2009, 267(1–4), p 160-167Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Lee and K. Min, Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-sprayed Ni-Cr-W-Mo-B Alloy Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2000, 132(1), p 49-57Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Giacomantonio, S. Gulizia, M. Jahedi, Y. Wong, R. Moore, and M. Valimberti, Heat Treatment of Thermally Sprayed Ni-based Wear and Corrosion Coatings, Materials Forum, 2011, Institution of Engineers Australia, pp. 48–55Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Siebert, C. Funke, R. Vaβen, and D. Stöver, Changes in Porosity and Young’s Modulus due to Sintering of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 1999, 92–93, p 217-223Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Li, K.A. Khor, and P. Cheang, Properties of Heat-Treated Calcium Phosphate Coatings Deposited by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) Spray, Biomaterials, 2002, 23(10), p 2105-2112Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W.-Y. Li, C.-J. Li, and H. Liao, Effect of Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of Cold-Sprayed Cu Coating, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2006, 15(2), p 206-211Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W.-Y. Li, C.-J. Li, H. Liao, and C. Coddet, Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Microhardness of Cold-Sprayed tin Bronze Coating, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2007, 253(14), p 5967-5971Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Xie, X. Lin, K. Wang, X. Mo, D. Zhang, and P. Lin, Corrosion Characteristics of Plasma-Sprayed Ni-Coated WC Coatings Comparison with Different Post-Treatment, Corros. Sci., 2007, 49(2), p 662-671Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.-T. Wang, C.-J. Li, G.-J. Yang, and C.-X. Li, Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Property of Cold-Sprayed Nanostructured FeAl/Al2O3 Intermetallic Composite Coating, Vacuum, 2008, 83(1), p 146-152Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.D. Prasad, S. Joladarashi, M. Ramesh, M. Srinath, and B. Channabasappa, Influence of Microwave Hybrid Heating on the Sliding Wear Behaviour of HVOF Sprayed CoMoCrSi Coating, Mater. Res. Express, 2018, 5(8), p 086519Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.R. Mishra and A.K. Sharma, Microwave–Material Interaction Phenomena: Heating Mechanisms, Challenges and Opportunities in Material Processing, Compos. A Appl. Sci. Manuf., 2016, 81, p 78-97Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Bolelli and L. Lusvarghi, Heat Treatment Effects on the Tribological Performance of HVOF Sprayed Co-Mo-Cr-Si Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2006, 15(4), p 802-810Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Morisada, H. Fujii, T. Mizuno, G. Abe, T. Nagaoka, and M. Fukusumi, Modification of Thermally Sprayed Cemented Carbide Layer by Friction Stir Processing, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2010, 204(15), p 2459-2464Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    X.-M. Meng, J.-B. Zhang, W. Han, J. Zhao, and Y.-L. Liang, Influence of Annealing Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cold Sprayed 304 Stainless Steel Coating, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2011, 258(2), p 700-704Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K.J. Hodder, H. Izadi, A.G. McDonald, and A.P. Gerlich, Fabrication of Aluminum–Alumina Metal Matrix Composites via Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying at Low Pressure Followed by Friction Stir Processing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, 556, p 114-121Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Huang, W. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Fu, M.-P. Planche, H. Liao, and G. Montavon, Modification of a Cold Sprayed SiCp/Al5056 Composite Coating by Friction Stir Processing, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2016, 296, p 69-75Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Peat, A. Galloway, A. Toumpis, P. McNutt, and N. Iqbal, The erosion Performance of Cold Spray Deposited Metal Matrix Composite Coatings with Subsequent Friction Stir Processing, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2017, 396, p 1635-1648Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Yang, W. Li, P. Niu, X. Yang, and Y. Xu, Cold Sprayed AA2024/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites Improved by Friction Stir Processing: Microstructure Characterization, Mechanical Performance and Strengthening Mechanisms, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, 736, p 115-123Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. Medvedovski, Alumina–Mullite Ceramics for Structural Applications, Ceram. Int., 2006, 32(4), p 369-375Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Milak, F. Minatto, and O. Montedo, Wear Performance of Alumina-Based Ceramics—A Review of the Influence of Microstructure on Erosive Wear, Cerâmica, 2015, 61(357), p 88-103Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Grewal, H. Singh, and A. Agrawal, Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Thermal Sprayed Nickel–Alumina Composite Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 216, p 78-92Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Das, T. Bandyopadhyay, S. Ghosh, A. Chattopadhyay, and P. Bandyopadhyay, Processing and Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed Ceramic Coatings on Steel Substrate: Part II. On Coating Performance, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2003, 34(9), p 1919-1930Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. Wang, Y.-D. He, S.-J. Deng, and J. Zhang, Porous α-Al2O3 Thermal Barrier Coatings with Dispersed Pt Particles Prepared by Cathode Plasma Electrolytic Deposition, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 2016, 23(1), p 92-101Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Q. Zhong and F. Ohuchi, Surface Science Studies on the Ni/Al2O3 Interface, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vac. Surf. Films, 1990, 8(3), p 2107-2112Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C.B. Ponton and R.D. Rawlings, Vickers Indentation Fracture Toughness Test Part 1 Review of Literature and Formulation of Standardised Indentation Toughness Equations, Mater. Sci. Technol., 1989, 5(9), p 865-872Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. Grewal, A. Agrawal, and H. Singh, Design and Development of High-Velocity Slurry Erosion Test Rig Using CFD, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2013, 22(1), p 152-161Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Pasha, H. Ghasemi, and J. Neshati, Study of the Pitting Corrosion of Superduplex Stainless Steel and X-65 Carbon Steel During Erosion–Corrosion by Cyclic Polarisation Technique, Corros. Eng. Sci. Technol., 2016, 51(6), p 463-471Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Chang, X. Du, and J. Huang, Achieving Ultrafine Grain Size in Mg-Al-Zn Alloy by Friction Stir Processing, Scripta Mater., 2007, 57(3), p 209-212Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. Akram, P.R. Kalvala, V. Jindal, and M. Misra, Evaluating Location Specific Strain Rates, Temperatures, and Accumulated Strains in Friction Welds Through Microstructure Modeling, Def. Technol., 2018, 14(2), p 83-92Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. Selvam, A. Prakash, H. Grewal, and H. Arora, Structural Refinement in Austenitic Stainless Steel by Submerged Friction Stir Processing, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2017, 197, p 200-207Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. Kulu, I. Hussainova, and R. Veinthal, Solid Particle Erosion of Thermal Sprayed Coatings, Wear, 2005, 258(1–4), p 488-496Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H.S. Grewal, A. Agrawal, and H. Singh, Slurry Erosion Performance of Ni-Al2O3 Based Composite Coatings, Tribol. Int., 2013, 66, p 296-306Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    W. Tait, An Introduction to Electrochemical Corrosion Testing for Practicing Engineers and Scientists, Pair O Docks Publications, Racine, 1994Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    X. Sheng, Y.-P. Ting, and S.O. Pehkonen, The Influence of Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria Biofilm on the Corrosion of Stainless Steel AISI, 316, Corros. Sci., 2007, 49(5), p 2159-2176Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. Sadeghimeresht, N. Markocsan, P. Nylén, and S. Björklund, Corrosion Performance of Bi-layer Ni/Cr2C3–NiCr HVAF Thermal Spray Coating, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2016, 369, p 470-481Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Verdian, K. Raeissi, and M. Salehi, Corrosion Performance of HVOF and APS Thermally Sprayed NiTi Intermetallic Coatings in 3.5% NaCl Solution, Corros. Sci., 2010, 52(3), p 1052-1059Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Lekatou, E. Regoutas, and A. Karantzalis, Corrosion Behaviour of Cermet-Based Coatings with a Bond Coat in 0.5 M H2SO4, Corros. Sci., 2008, 50(12), p 3389-3400Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. Lekatou, D. Zois, A. Karantzalis, and D. Grimanelis, Electrochemical Behaviour of Cermet Coatings with a Bond Coat on Al7075: Pseudopassivity, Localized Corrosion and Galvanic Effect Considerations in a Saline Environment, Corros. Sci., 2010, 52(8), p 2616-2635Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. Grewal, A. Agrawal, and H. Singh, Slurry Erosion Mechanism of Hydroturbine Steel: Effect of Operating Parameters, Tribol. Lett., 2013, 52(2), p 287-303Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. Kumar, S. Bhandari, and A. Goyal, Synergistic Effect of Al2O3/TiO2 Reinforcements on Slurry Erosion Performance of Nickel-Based Composite Coatings, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J: J. Eng. Tribol., 2018, 232(8), p 974-986Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. Levy, M. Aghazadeh, and G. Hickey, The Effect of Test Variables on the Platelet Mechanism of Erosion, Wear, 1986, 108(1), p 23-41Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A.V. Levy, The Platelet Mechanism of Erosion of Ductile Metals, Wear, 1986, 108(1), p 1-21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rani
    • 1
  • G. Perumal
    • 1
  • M. Roy
    • 2
  • H. S. Grewal
    • 1
  • H. Singh
    • 3
  • H. S. Arora
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Surface Science and Tribology Lab, Department of Mechanical EngineeringShiv Nadar UniversityGreater NoidaIndia
  2. 2.Defence Metallurgical Research LaboratoryHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoparRupnagarIndia

Personalised recommendations