Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 690–705 | Cite as

Characteristics of Conventional and Cascaded Arc Plasma Spray-Deposited Ceramic Under Standard and High-Throughput Conditions

  • Ramachandran Chidambaram Seshadri
  • Sanjay SampathEmail author
Peer Reviewed


Cascaded arc plasma torches have now become mainstream in thermal spray industry incorporating both multiple and single cathode configurations. Although there are anecdotal descriptions available for cascaded arc torches in terms of enhanced melting capability and overall process reliability, a critical and direct comparison of material interaction between the two technologies (cascaded arc and conventional torch configurations) through robust scientific methods is not available. In this article, two commercially available APS torches, namely, the conventional torch (F4MB) and the cascaded arc plasma torch (Sinplex Pro), were compared in the same spray cell using the same control equipment by adopting a systematic set of experiments involving voltage measurements, particle behavior, deposit formation dynamics, and infrared-based spray footprint heat flux quantification. The analysis of the data has led to quantitative correlations between torch configurations. The powder loading study indicated the enhanced melting capability of cascaded arc at equivalent parameters along with expanded and more uniform particle temperature over larger feed rates. The combination of higher feed rate and melt efficiency leads to distinction in coating stress evolution and microstructure. The integrated measurements suggest a scaling parameter that can establish process equivalency parameters to guide the transition from conventional to cascade torches.


atmospheric plasma spray (APS) diagnostics in-situ monitoring on-line particle behavior spray efficiency stability of TS process zirconia 



This work was supported by The Industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology of Stony Brook University. The authors thank Dr. Raja Singaravelu for performing heat flux measurements and calculations. The internal discussions on sample preparation, coating property measurements, and evaluations with Dr. Vaishak Viswanathan, and Dr. Gopal Dwivedi are acknowledged. The authors appreciate the Oerlikon Metco Team: Dr. Richard Schmid, Michael Tobin, Dr. Jose Colmenares-Angulo, David Hawley, Ronald Molz, Riston Rocchio-Heller, and Jonathan Gutleber for the help and support in setting up Sinplex Pro Cascaded arc plasma torch and 9MC spray control system at the Centre for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR), Stony Brook University, New York.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramachandran Chidambaram Seshadri
    • 1
  • Sanjay Sampath
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR)Stony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

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