Introduction of suspension and solution plasma spraying led to a breakthrough in the deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings and enabled preparation of new types of layers. However, their deposition with high feed rates needed, for example, for the deposition of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on large-scale components, is still challenging. In this study, possibility of high-throughput plasma spraying of YSZ coatings is demonstrated for the latest generation of high-enthalpy hybrid water-stabilized plasma (WSP-H) torch technology. The results show that microstructure of the coatings prepared by WSP-H may be tailored for specific applications by the choice of deposition conditions, in particular formulation of the liquid feedstock. Porous and columnar coatings with low thermal conductivity (0.5-0.6 W/mK) were prepared from commercial ethanol-based suspension. Dense vertically cracked coatings with higher thermal conductivity but also higher internal cohesion were deposited from suspension containing ethanol/water mixture and coarser YSZ particles. Spraying of solution formulated from diluted zirconium acetate and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate led also to the successful deposition of YSZ coating combining regions of porous and denser microstructure and providing both low thermal conductivity and improved cohesion of the coating. Enthalpy content, liquid-plasma interaction and coating buildup mechanisms are also discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
L. Pawlowski, Suspension and Solution Thermal Spray Coatings, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2009, 203(19), p 2807-2829
A. Killinger, R. Gadow, G. Mauer, A. Guignard, R. Vassen, and D. Stöver, Review of New Developments in Suspension and Solution Precursor Thermal Spray Processes, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, 20(4), p 677-695
P. Fauchais and G. Montavon, Latest Developments in Suspension and Liquid Precursor Thermal Spraying, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2010, 19(1-2), p 226-239
P. Fauchais, M. Vardelle, S. Goutier, and A. Vardelle, Key Challenges and Opportunities in Suspension and Solution Plasma Spraying, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process., 2014, 35(3), p 511-525
P. Fauchais, M. Vardelle, A. Vardelle, and S. Goutier, What Do We Know, What Are the Current Limitations of Suspension Plasma Spraying?, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24(7), p 1120-1129
A. Bacciochini, F. Ben-Ettouil, E. Brousse, J. Ilavsky, G. Montavon, A. Denoirjean, S. Valette, and P. Fauchais, Quantification of Void Networks of as-Sprayed and Annealed Nanostructured Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Deposits Manufactured by Suspension Plasma Spraying, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2010, 205(3), p 683-689
P. Fauchais, G. Montavon, R. S. Lima, and B. R. Marple, Engineering a New Class of Thermal Spray Nano-Based Microstructures from Agglomerated Nanostructured Particles, Suspensions and Solutions: An Invited Review, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 2011, 44(9), p 93001.
E. Meillot, R. Vert, C. Caruyer, D. Damiani, and M. Vardelle, Manufacturing Nanostructured YSZ Coatings by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS): Effect of Injection Parameters, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 2011, 44(19), 8 pages.
S. Govindarajan, R.O. Dusane, and S.V. Joshi, In Situ Particle Generation and Splat Formation during Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 2011, 94(12), p 4191-4199
K. VanEvery, M.J.M. Krane, R.W. Trice, H. Wang, W. Porter, M. Besser, D. Sordelet, J. Ilavsky, and J. Almer, Column Formation in Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coatings and Resultant Thermal Properties, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, 20(4), p 817-828
E.H. Jordan, C. Jiang, J. Roth, and M. Gell, Low Thermal Conductivity Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Using the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 23(5), p 849-859
T. Bhatia, A. Ozturk, L. Xie, E.H. Jordan, B.M. Cetegen, M. Gell, X. Ma, and N.P. Padture, Mechanisms of Ceramic Coating Deposition in Solution-Precursor Plasma Spray, J. Mater. Res., 2002, 17(9), p 2363-2372
S.V. Joshi and G. Sivakumar, Hybrid Processing with Powders and Solutions: A Novel Approach to Deposit Composite Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24(7), p 1166-1186
M. Gell, E.H. Jordan, M. Teicholz, B.M. Cetegen, N.P. Padture, L. Xie, D. Chen, X. Ma, and J. Roth, Thermal Barrier Coatings Made by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2008, 17(1), p 124-135
N.P. Padture, K.W. Schlichting, T. Bhatia, A. Ozturk, B. Cetegen, E.H. Jordan, M. Gell, S. Jiang, T.D. Xiao, P.R. Strutt, E. García, P. Miranzo, and M.I. Osendi, Towards Durable Thermal Barrier Coatings with Novel Microstructures Deposited by Solution-Precursor Plasma Spray, Acta Mater., 2001, 49(12), p 2251-2257
F.-L. Toma, A. Potthoff, L.-M. Berger, and C. Leyens, Demands, Potentials, and Economic Aspects of Thermal Spraying with Suspensions: A Critical Review, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24(7), p 1143-1152
N. Curry, K. VanEvery, T. Snyder, J. Susnjar, and S. Bjorklund, Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters, Coatings, 2015, 5(3), p 338-356
A. Ganvir, N. Curry, N. Markocsan, P. Nylén, and F.-L. Toma, Comparative Study of Suspension Plasma Sprayed and Suspension High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Sprayed YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2015, 268, p 70-76
A. Ganvir, N. Curry, S. Björklund, N. Markocsan, and P. Nylén, Characterization of Microstructure and Thermal Properties of YSZ Coatings Obtained by Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying (ASPS), J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24(7), p 1195-1204
D.R. Clarke, M. Oechsner, and N.P. Padture, Thermal-Barrier Coatings for More Efficient Gas-Turbine Engines, MRS Bull., 2012, 37(10), p 891-898
S. Sampath, U. Schulz, M.O. Jarligo, and S. Kuroda, Processing Science of Advanced Thermal-Barrier Systems, MRS Bull., 2012, 37(10), p 903-910
G. Mauer, N. Schlegel, A. Guignard, R. Vaßen, and O. Guillon, Effects of Feedstock Decomposition and Evaporation on the Composition of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24(7), p 1187-1194
G. Mauer, N. Schlegel, A. Guignard, M. O. Jarligo, S. Rezanka, A. Hospach, and R. Vaßen, Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Particular Difficulties in Processing, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 24(1-2), p 30–37.
O. Marchand, P. Bertrand, J. Mougin, C. Comminges, M.-P. Planche, and G. Bertrand, Characterization of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2010, 205(4), p 993-998
M. Marr and O. Kesler, Permeability and Microstructure of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Electrolytes for SOFCs on Various Substrates, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2012, 21(6), p 1334-1346
M. Marr, D. Waldbillig, and O. Kesler, The Influence of Process Equipment on the Properties of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2013, 22(2–3), p 116-124
A. Valarezo, G. Dwivedi, S. Sampath, R. Musalek, and J. Matejicek, Elastic and Anelastic Behavior of TBCs Sprayed at High-Deposition Rates, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 24(1-2), p 160-167
Z. Tang, H. Kim, I. Yaroslavski, G. Masindo, Z. Celler, and D. Ellsworth, Novel Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced by Axial Suspension Plasma Spray, in Thermal Spray, Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, 2011, 2011, p 571-575
S. Govindarajan, R.O. Dusane, and S.V. Joshi, Understanding the Formation of Vertical Cracks in Solution Precursor Plasma Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 2014, 97(11), p 3396-3406
R. Musalek, G. Bertolissi, J. Medricky, J. Kotlan, Z. Pala, and N. Curry, Feasibility of Suspension Spraying of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia with Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2015, 268, p 58-62
J. Kotlan, Z. Pala, R. Musalek, and P. Ctibor, On Reactive Suspension Plasma Spraying of Calcium Titanate, Ceram. Int., 2016, 42(3), p 4607-4615
R. Musalek, J. Medricky, T. Tesar, J. Kotlan, Z. Pala, F. Lukac, T. Chraska, and N. Curry, Suspensions Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Hybrid Water-Stabilized Plasma Technology, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2017, 26(1-2), p 37-46
P. Sokolowski, P. Nylen, R. Musalek, L. Latka, S. Kozerski, D. Dietrich, T. Lampke, and L. Pawlowski, The Microstructural Studies of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Zirconia Coatings with the Use of High-Energy Plasma Torches, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2017, 318, p 250-261
P. Sokolowski, S. Bjorklund, R. Musalek, R.T. Candidato, L. Pawlowski, B. Nait-Ali, and D. Smith, Thermophysical Properties of Zirconia Coatings Obtained Using Suspension with Different Plasma Spray Torches, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2017, 318, p 28-38
R. Musalek, J. Medricky, J. Kotlan, T. Tesar, F. Lukac, P. Ctibor, K. Illkova, and T. Chraska, High Feed Rate Plasma Spraying of YSZ from Various Suspensions, in ITSC, International Thermal Spray Conference, 2017, 2017, p 36-41
T. Tesar, R. Musalek, J. Medricky, J. Kotlan, F. Lukac, Z. Pala, P. Ctibor, T. Chraska, S. Houdkova, V. Rimal, and N. Curry, Development of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings with High Enthalpy Plasma Torch, 2017, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2017, 325, p 277-288
J. Kotlan, R. Musalek, J. Medricky, T. Tesar, F. Lukac, and T. Chraska, Suspension Plasma Spraying of YAG Using WSP-H—High Enthalpic Plasma Torch, in XXX International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies (SMT30), 2016, 7 pages.
J. Matejicek, T. Kavka, G. Bertolissi, P. Ctibor, M. Vilemova, R. Musalek, and B. Nevrla, The Role of Spraying Parameters and Inert Gas Shrouding in Hybrid Water-Argon Plasma Spraying of Tungsten and Copper for Nuclear Fusion Applications, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2013, 22(5), p 744-755
M. Hrabovsky, Thermal Plasma Generators with Water Stabilized Arc, Open Plasma Physisc J., 2009, 2(1), p 99-104
M. Hrabovsky, Generation of Thermal Plasmas in Liquid-Stabilized and Hybrid Dc-Arc Torches, Pure Appl. Chem., 2002, 74(3), p 429-433
T. Kavka, V. Kopecky, V. Sember, A. Maslani, and O. Chumak, Analysis of Plasma Jets Generated in Gas and Gas-Water Torches, High Temp. Mater. Process., 2007, 11(1), p 59-70
J. Jenista, H. Takana, H. Nishiyama, M. Bartlova, V. Aubrecht, P. Krenek, M. Hrabovsky, T. Kavka, V. Sember, and A. Maslani, Integrated Parametric Study of a Hybrid-Stabilized Argon–water Arc under Subsonic, Transonic and Supersonic Plasma Flow Regimes, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 2011, 44(43), p 435204.
T. Kavka, J. Matejicek, P. Ctibor, A. Maslani, and M. Hrabovsky, Plasma Spraying of Copper by Hybrid Water-Gas DC arc plasma torch, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, 20(4), p 760-774
W.J. Parker, R.J. Jenkins, C.P. Butler, and G.L. Abbott, Flash Method of Determining Thermal Diffusivity, Heat Capacity, and Thermal Conductivity, J. Appl. Phys., 1961, 32(9), p 1679-1684
D. Maillet, C. Moyne, and B. Rémy, Effect of a Thin Layer on the Measurement of the Thermal Diffusivity of a Material by a Flash Method, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 2000, 43(21), p 4057-4060
R.E. Taylor, X. Wang, and X. Xu, Thermophysical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coatings, Surf. Coatings Technol., 1999, 120–121, p 89-95
M. Skovgaard, A. Ahniyaz, B.F. Sørensen, K. Almdal, and A. van Lelieveld, Effect of Microscale Shear Stresses on the Martensitic Phase Transformation of Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Zirconia Powders, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 2010, 30(13), p 2749-2755
OERLIKON METCO, Metco 204NS—8% Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Agglomerated and HOSP Thermal Spray Powders (Material Product Data Sheet), 2014, 6 pages.
P. Scardi and M. Leoni, Whole Powder Pattern Modelling, Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A Found. Crystallogr., 2002, 58(2), p 190-200
M. Hlina and M. Hrabovsky, Enthalpy Probe Diagnostics of Steam/Argon Plasma Jet, Plasma Phys. Technol., 2015, 2(2), p 142-145
G. Mauer, A. Guignard, R. Vaßen, and D. Stöver, Process Diagnostics in Suspension Plasma Spraying, Surf. Coatings Technol., 2010, 205(4), p 961-966
R. Chidambaram Seshadri, G. Dwivedi, V. Viswanathan, and S. Sampath, Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2016, 25(8), p 1666-1683
J. Medricky, N. Curry, Z. Pala, M. Vilemova, T. Chraska, J. Johansson, and N. Markocsan, Optimization of High Porosity Thermal Barrier Coatings Generated with a Porosity Former, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24(4), p 622-628
Financial support provided by Czech Science Foundation through Grant No. GA15-12145S (Physical aspects of plasma spray deposition from liquid feedstock) is gratefully acknowledged. The spraying experiments with suspension “B” were co-financed by the courtesy of National Science Centre (Poland) in the frame of grant Preludium, 2014/15/N/ST8/02660.
About this article
Cite this article
Musalek, R., Medricky, J., Tesar, T. et al. Controlling Microstructure of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Prepared from Suspensions and Solutions by Plasma Spraying with High Feed Rates. J Therm Spray Tech 26, 1787–1803 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-017-0622-x
- hybrid plasma torch
- solution precursor spraying
- suspension spraying
- thermal barrier coatings (TBCs)
- water-stabilized plasma
- yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)