Skip to main content
Log in

Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Based WC/Co Coatings Deposited by Spray and Fuse Process Varying the Oxygen Flow

  • Peer Reviewed
  • Published:
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


In this work, the effect of oxygen flow variation in the corrosion behavior of Ni-based WC/Co coatings deposited by spray and fuse process was investigated. The coatings were deposited on gray cast iron substrates using a Superjet Eutalloy thermal spraying gun. The morphology of the coatings was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The crystallographic phases were registered by x-ray diffraction (XRD), the diffraction patterns show the crystalline phases of the powder components with principal reflections for Ni and WC, the increase in flame temperature, due to the oxygen flow variation, generated amorphization in the nickel and an important crystallization of the planes (111) and (222) of WC as well as the decarburization of WC in W2C and W metallic. The corrosion behavior was investigated at room temperature in a 3.5% w/w aqueous solution of NaCl via potentiodynamic polarization. Electrochemical corrosion test showed that the coatings deposited under neutral flame conditions with an oxygen flow of 12.88 SCFH evidenced higher corrosion resistance. The chemical composition of the coatings and corrosion areas were analyzed by particle-induced x-ray emission, this technique permitting the corroboration of the decarburization process of WC determined by XRD and the formation of Cl structures.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. C.R.C. Lima, R. Libardi, F. Camargo, H.C. Fals, and V.A. Ferraresi, Assessment of Abrasive Wear of Nanostructured WC-Co and Fe-Based Coatings Applied by HP-HVOF, Flame, and Wire Arc Spray, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 23, p 1097

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. A.F. Richardson, A. Neville, and J.I.B. Wilson, Developing Diamond MMCs to Improve Durability in Aggressive Abrasive Conditions, Wear, 2003, 255, p 593

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. S. Krebs, F. Gärtner, and T. Klassen, Cold Spraying of Cu-Al-Bronze for Cavitation Protection in Marine Environments, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2015, 24, p 126

    Google Scholar 

  4. P. Farahmand and R. Kovacevic, Corrosion and Wear Behavior of Laser Cladded Ni–WC Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2015, 276, p 121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. A.S. Kurlov and A.I. Gusev, Phase Equilibria in the W ± C System and Tungsten Carbides, Russ. Chem. Rev., 2006, 75, p 617

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Q. Zhan, L. Yu, F. Ye, Q. Xue, and Hua Li, Quantitative Evaluation of the Decarburization and Microstructure Evolution of WC–Co During Plasma Spraying, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, 206, p 4068

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. J. Yuan, Q. Zhan, J. Huang, S. Ding, and H. Li, Decarburization Mechanisms of WCCo During Thermal Spraying: Insights From Controlled Carbon Loss and Microstructure Characterization, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2013, 142, p 165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. L.-M. Berger, Application of Hardmetals as Thermal Spray Coatings, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 2015, 49, p 350

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. A. Röttger, S.L. Weber, W. Theisen, B. Rajasekaran, and R. Vaßen, HVOF Spraying of Fe-Based MMC Coatings with In Situ Formation of Hard Particles by Hot Isostatic Pressing, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2012, 21, p 344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. S.-H. Chang and P.-Y. Chang, Study on the Mechanical Properties, Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviors of Nano-WC–Co–Ni–Fe Hard Materials Through HIP and Hot-Press Sintering Processes, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2014, 618, p 56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. W.J. Przybyłowicz, V. Nxumalo, J. Kramers, N., and Mongwaketsi, “Micro-PIXE Characterisation of Uranium Occurrence in the Coal Zones and the Mudstones of the Springbok Flats Basin, South Africa”. in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Available online 2 November 2016

  12. C.S. Freemantle, N. Sacks, M. Topic, and C.A. Pineda-Vargas, PIXE as a Characterization Technique in the Cutting Tool Industry, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 2014, 318, p 168-172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. E. Poorqasemi, O. Abootalebi, M. Peikari, and F. Haqdar, Investigating Accuracy of the Tafel Extrapolation Method in HCl Solutions, Corros. Sci., 2009, 51, p 1043

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. V. Feliu, J.A. Gonzalez, C. Andrade, and S. Feliu, Equivalent Circuit for Modelling the Steel-Concrete Interface. II. Complications in Applying the Stern–Geary Equation to Corrosion Rate Determinations, Corros. Sci., 1998, 40, p 995

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. G. Alejandro Orjuela, R. Rincón, and J.J. Olaya, Corrosion Resistance of Niobium Carbide Coatings Produced on AISI, 1045 Steel Via Thermo-Reactive Diffusion Deposition, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2014, 259, p 667

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. M. Jafari, M.H. Enayati, M. Salehi, S.M. Nahvi, and C.G. Park, IMPROVEMENT in Tribological Properties of HVOF Sprayed WC–Co Coatings Using Electroless Ni–P Coated Feedstock Powders, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 235, p 310

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. M. Jafari, M.H. Enayati, M. Salehi, S.M. Nahvi, and C.G. Park, Microstructural and Mechanical Characterizations of a Novel HVOF-Sprayed WC-Co Coating Deposited From Electroless Ni–P Coated WC-12Co Powders, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2013, 578, p 46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Y. Guo, B. Gao, G. Liu, T. Zhou, and G. Qiao, Effect of Temperature on the Microstructure and Bonding Strength of Partial Transient Liquid Phase Bonded WC–Co/40Cr Joints Using Ti/Ni/Ti Interlayers, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 2015, 51, p 250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. S. Bouaricha and J.-G. Legoux, “Cladding WC-Co Based Materials to Protect them from Decarburization caused by the Heat of the Thermal Spray Gun”, Surf. Coat. Technol. (2016). Accepted 29 sep 2016, doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.09.076

  20. E. Aghion and Y. Perez, Effects of Porosity on Corrosion Resistance of Mg Alloy Foam Produced by Powder Metallurgy Technology, Mater. Charact., 2014, 96, p 78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. F. Vargas, J.E. Parra, J.A. Arias, J.D. Arboleda, and J.F. Hernandez, Caracterización de Polvos Para Uso Como Materia Prima en Recubrimientos Depositados Mediante Rociado Térmico, Scientia et Technica, 2007, 36, p 199

    Google Scholar 

  22. B. Torres, M. Campo, M. Lieblich, and J. Rams, Oxy-Acetylene Flame Thermal Sprayed Coatings of Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with MoSi2 Intermetallic Particles, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 236, p 274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. C.L. Zeng, J. Li, and T. Zhou, Galvanic Corrosion in Molten Salts: A Discussion of the Corrosion Mechanism of Two-Phase Ni–20Cr–20/30Cu Alloys in Eutectic (Li, K)2CO3 at 650°C, Oxid. Met., 2005, 64, p 2017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. B.M. Capell and G.S. Was, Selective Internal Oxidation as a Mechanism for Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys, Minerals Met. Mater. Soc. ASM Int., 2007, doi:10.1007/s11661-007-9124-7

    Google Scholar 

  25. B. Elsener, M. Crobu, M.A. Scorciapino, and A. Rossi, Electroless deposited Ni–P alloys: corrosion resistance mechanism, J. Appl. Electrochem., 2008, 38, p 1053-1060

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to thank the technical and scientific staff at the Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, for their kind assistance in the experimental work, to COLCIENCIAS for financial support throughout the project: “Caracterización estructural y química mediante haces de iones de recubrimientos nanoestructurados con aplicaciones tecnológicas” and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. E. Alfonso.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jiménez, H., Olaya, J.J., Alfonso, J.E. et al. Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Based WC/Co Coatings Deposited by Spray and Fuse Process Varying the Oxygen Flow. J Therm Spray Tech 26, 1708–1719 (2017).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: