A hybrid DC arc plasma torch, combining water and gas stabilization, offers a high flexibility in plasma characteristics. These can be controlled in a wide range by the torch operational parameters, such as arc current and secondary gas flow rate. In this study, their influence on plasma spraying of tungsten and copper was investigated. To suppress the in-flight oxidation of the metals, inert gas shrouding was applied. In-flight particle diagnostics and analysis of free-flight particles and coatings was performed for spraying experiments in the open atmosphere and with argon shrouding. Both in-flight particle behavior and coating properties were found to be sensitive to the torch parameters. The application of shrouding was found to affect particle in-flight parameters, reduce the oxide content in the coatings and generally improve their properties, such as thermal conductivity. However, a different degree of these effects was observed for copper and tungsten.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S. Sampath, X. Jiang, A. Kulkarni, J. Matějíček, D.L. Gilmore, and R.A. Neiser, Development of Process Maps for Plasma Spray: Case Study for Molybdenum, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2003, 348(1-2), p 54-66
V.V. Sobolev and J.M. Guilemany, Oxidation of Coatings in Thermal Spraying, Mater. Lett., 1998, 37(4-5), p 231-235
M. Jankovic, J. Mostaghimi, and V. Pershin, Design of a New Nozzle for Direct Current Plasma Guns with Improved Spraying Parameters, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2000, 9(1), p 114-120
K. Voleník, F. Hanousek, P. Chráska, J. Ilavský, and K. Neufuss, In-Flight Oxidation of High-Alloy Steels During Plasma Spraying, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1999, 272, p 199-206
G. Mauer, R. Vassen, and D. Stöver, Controlling the Oxygen Contents in Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metal Alloy Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2007, 201(8), p 4796-4799
J. Matějíček, P. Chráska, and J. Linke, Thermal Spray Coatings for Fusion Applications—Review, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2007, 16(1), p 64-83
J. Matějíček and R. Mušálek, Processing and Properties of Plasma Sprayed W + Cu Composites, Thermal Spray Crossing Borders, Proceedings of International Thermal Spray Conference, E. Lugscheider, Ed., (Maastricht), DVS Verlag, 2008, p 1412-1417
J. Matějíček, V. Weinzettl, E. Dufková, V. Piffl, and V. Peřina, Plasma Sprayed Tungsten-Based Coatings and their Usage in Edge Plasma Region of Tokamaks, Acta Technica CSAV, 2006, 51(2), p 179-191
M. Hrabovský, V. Kopecký, V. Sember, T. Kavka, O. Chumak, and M. Konrád, Properties of Hybrid Water/Gas DC Arc Plasma Torch, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2006, 34(4), p 1566-1575
C. Moreau, P. Gougeon, M. Lamontagne, V. Lacasse, G. Vaudreuil, and P. Cielo, On-line control of the Plasma Spraying Process by Monitoring the Temperature, Velocity and Trajectory of In-Flight Particles. Proceedings of 7th National Thermal Spray Conference (Boston), ASM International Materials Park, 1994, p 431-436
T. Kavka, J. Matějíček, P. Ctibor, A. Mašláni, and M. Hrabovský, Plasma Spraying of Copper by Hybrid Water-Gas DC Arc Plasma Torch, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, 20(4), p 760-774
Y.R. Niu, D.Y. Hu, H. Ji, and X.B. Zheng, In-Flight Behaviors and Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Tungsten Coatings, Materials Science Forum, 2010, 658, p 13-16
T. Kavka, A. Mašláni, V. Kopecký, M. Hrabovský, and O. Chumak, Interaction of Thermal Plasma Jet Generated by Hybrid Gas-Water Torch with the Surrounding, Proceedings of ICPIG-29, Institute of Physics (IoP), July 12–17, 2009, Cancun, Mexico
T. Kavka, A. Mašláni, V. Sember, V. Kopecky, O. Chumak, and M. Hrabovsky, Experimental investigation of fully turbulent plasma jet and its interaction with ambient air, Proc. ISPC-18,(ed.) K. Tachibana, O. Takai, K. Ono, T. Shirafuji, International Plasma Chemistry Society, August 26-31, 2007, Kyoto, Japan, pp 1-4
J. Matějíček, O. Chumak, M. Konrád, M. Oberste-Berghaus, and M. Lamontagne, The Influence of Spraying Parameters on In-Flight Characteristics of Tungsten Particles and the Resulting Splats Sprayed by Hybrid Water-Gas Stabilized Plasma Torch, Thermal Spray Connects: Explore Its Surfacing Potential, E. Lugscheider, Ed., May 2–4, 2005 (Basel, Switzerland), DVS, 2005, p 594-599
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade under project No. FR-TI2/702 and No. FR-TI2/561.
This article is an invited paper selected from presentations at the 2011 International Thermal Spray Conference and has been expanded from the original presentation. It is simultaneously published in Thermal Spray 2011: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, Hamburg, Germany, September 27-29, 2011, Basil R. Marple, Arvind Agarwal, Margaret M. Hyland, Yuk-Chiu Lau, Chang-Jiu Li, Rogerio S. Lima, and André McDonald, Ed., ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 2011.
About this article
Cite this article
Kavka, T., Matějíček, J., Ctibor, P. et al. Spraying of Metallic Powders by Hybrid Gas/Water Torch and the Effects of Inert Gas Shrouding. J Therm Spray Tech 21, 695–705 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-011-9725-y
- gas shroud
- hybrid water-gas plasma torch
- plasma facing materials
- plasma spraying