Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 27, Issue 9, pp 4799–4809 | Cite as

Surface Modification of 304 Stainless Steel by Electro-Spark Deposition

  • Z. JiaoEmail author
  • S. Peterkin
  • L. Felix
  • R. Liang
  • J. P. Oliveira
  • N. Schell
  • N. Scotchmer
  • E. Toyserkani
  • Y. Zhou


Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed microwelding process that is used to apply surface coatings for the repair of damaged high value and precision products or modify their surfaces for specific properties. The low heat input, minimal heat-affected zone and the ability to form metallurgical bonding of coating to substrate are major advantages of the ESD process. Many applications require the components to have excellent surface performance, such as wear and corrosion resistance. ESD technique provides an approach to modify the component surface without compromising the bulk properties. In this study, surface modifications of 304 stainless steel by ESD were investigated. Titanium carbide (TiC), tungsten carbide (WC) and molybdenum (Mo) were employed as coating materials. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis were conducted to characterize the microstructure and composition of the coatings. The coatings thicknesses were all around 40 µm. The results showed that TiC and WC coatings showed a dramatic increase in the microhardness, up to 5 times. WC coating improved the wear resistance by more than 5 times, while TiC and Mo coatings also improved it by approximately 2.5 times. Electro-chemical tests were conducted to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Mo coating exhibited a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance in 5% NaCl solutions, corroding 350 times slower than stainless steel. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction was performed to investigate the microstructure changes of the Mo-coated sample. Heat treatment was also carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior of Mo-coated 304 stainless steel at elevated service temperature in air or argon.


corrosion resistance electro-spark deposition stainless steel surface modification 



Financial support from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), Ontario Centres of Excellence (OCE) and Huys Industries Ltd is gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank TechnoCoat Co., Ltd for materials support. The authors would like to thank Dr. Joyce Koo and Dr. Mehrdad Iravani from University of Waterloo, for wear test experiment and valuable discussions. Mr. Dominic Leung and Kevin Chan from Huys Industries are highly acknowledged for their technical support.

Supplementary material

11665_2018_3579_MOESM1_ESM.docx (268 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 268 kb)


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Jiao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • S. Peterkin
    • 5
  • L. Felix
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Liang
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. P. Oliveira
    • 3
  • N. Schell
    • 4
  • N. Scotchmer
    • 5
  • E. Toyserkani
    • 2
  • Y. Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Materials JoiningUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Materials ResearchHelmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtGeesthachtGermany
  5. 5.Huys Industries Ltd.WestonCanada

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