Advertisement

Effect of Multiple Reflow Cycles and Al2O3 Nanoparticles Reinforcement on Performance of SAC305 Lead-Free Solder Alloy

  • Sanjay Tikale
  • K. Narayan Prabhu
Article

Abstract

The effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforcement on melting behavior, microstructure evolution at the interface and joint shear strength of 96.5Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder alloy subjected to multiple reflow cycles was investigated. The reinforced SAC305 solder alloy compositions were prepared by adding Al2O3 nanoparticles in different weight fractions (0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt.%) through mechanical dispersion. Cu/solder/Cu micro-lap-shear solder joint specimens were used to assess the shear strength of the solder joint. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the melting behavior of SAC305 solder nanocomposites. The solder joint interfacial microstructure was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase in melting temperature (TL) and melting temperature range of the SAC305 solder alloy by addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles were not significant. In comparison with unreinforced SAC305 solder alloy, the reinforcement of 0.05-0.5 wt.% of Al2O3 nanoparticles improved the solder wettability. The addition of nanoparticles in minor quantity effectively suppressed the Cu6Sn5 IMC growth, improved the solder joint shear strength and ductility under multiple reflow cycles. However, the improvement in solder properties was less pronounced on increasing the nanoparticle content above 0.1 wt.% of the solder alloy.

Keywords

Al2O3 nanoparticles nanocomposite multiple reflows SAC305 lead-free solder shear strength 

References

  1. 1.
    M. Abtew and G. Selvaduray, Lead-Free Solders in Microelectronics, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep., 2000, 27(5), p 95–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L.L. Duan, D.Q. Yu, S.Q. Han, H.T. Ma, and L. Wang, Microstructural Evolution of Sn-9Zn-3Bi Solder/Cu Joint During Long-Term Aging at 170, J. Alloys Compd., 2004, 381, p 202–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Date, T. Shoji, M. Fujiyoshi, K. Sato, and K.N. Tu, Ductile-to-Brittle Transition in Sn-Zn Solder Joints Measured by Impact Test, Scr. Mater., 2004, 51(7), p 641–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.P. Yu, M.H. Hon, and M.-C. Wang, The Adhesion Strength of a Lead-Free Solder Hot-Dipped on Copper Substrate, J. Electron. Mater., 2000, 29(2), p 237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Laurila, V. Vuorinen, and J.K. Kivilahti, Interfacial Reactions Between Lead-Free Solders and Common Base Materials, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep., 2005, 49(1–2), p 1–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Kumar and K.N. Prabhu, Review of Non-reactive and Reactive Wetting of Liquids on Surfaces, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 2007, 133(2), p 61–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Keller, D. Baither, U. Wilke, and G. Schmitz, Mechanical Properties of Pb-Free SnAg Solder Joints, Acta Mater., 2011, 59, p 2731–2741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.A. El-Daly and A.M. El-Taher, Evolution of Thermal Property and Creep Resistance of Ni and Zn-Doped Sn-2.0Ag-0.5Cu Lead-Free Solders, Mater. Des., 2013, 51, p 789–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Kanlayasiri, M. Mongkolwongrojn, and T. Ariga, Influence of Indium Addition on Characteristics of Sn-0.3Ag-0.7Cu Solder Alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2009, 485(1–2), p 225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.L. Chuang, L.C. Tsao, H.K. Lin, and L.P. Feng, Effects of Small Amount of Active Ti Element Additions on Microstructure and property of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu Solder, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2012, 558, p 478–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.L. Huang and L. Wang, Effects of Cu, Bi, and In on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Sn-Ag-X(Cu, Bi, In) Solders, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36, p 1439–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.M.L. Nai, J. Wei, and M. Gupta, Influence of Ceramic Reinforcements on the Wettability and Mechanical Properties of Novel Lead-Free Solder Composites, Thin Solid Films, 2006, 504(1–2), p 401–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.K. Gain, Y.C. Chan, and W.K.C. Yung, Effect of Additions of ZrO2 Nano-Particles on the Microstructure and Shear Strength of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder on Au/Ni Metallized Cu Pads, Microelectron. Reliab., 2011, 51(12), p 2306–2313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Amagai, A Study of Nanoparticles in Sn-Ag Based Lead Free Solders, Microelectron. Reliab., 2008, 48(1), p 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Fouzder, I. Shafiq, Y.C. Chan, A. Sharif, and W.K.C. Yung, Influence of SrTiO3 Nano-Particles on the Microstructure and Shear Strength of Sn–Ag–Cu Solder on Au/Ni Metallized Cu Pads, J. Alloys Compd., 2011, 509(5), p 1885–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.S. Lee, K.M. Chu, R. Patzelt, D. Manessis, A. Ostmann, and D.Y. Jeon, Effects of Co Addition in Eutectic Sn-3.5Ag Solder on Shear Strength and Microstructural Development, Microelectron. Eng., 2008, 85(7), p 1577–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Mohankumar and A.A.O. Tay, Nano-Particle Reinforced Solders for Fine Pitch Applications, 2004, Proceedings of 6th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC 2004) (IEEE Cat. No. 04EX971), p 455–461Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Laurila, V. Vuorinen, and M. Paulasto-Kröckel, Impurity and Alloying Effects on Interfacial Reaction Layers in Pb-Free Soldering, Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep., 2010, 68(1–2), p 1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    X.L. Zhong and M. Gupta, Development of Lead-Free Sn-0.7Cu/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Solders with Superior Strength, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 2018, 41(9), p 095403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.H. Chuang, M.W. Wu, S.Y. Chang, S.F. Ping, and L.C. Tsao, Strengthening Mechanism of Nano-Al2O3 particles reinforced Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu lead-free solder, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 2011, 22(8), p 1021–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L.C. Tsao, S.Y. Chang, C.I. Lee, W.H. Sun, and C.H. Huang, Effects of Nano-Al2O3 Additions on Microstructure Development and Hardness of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu Solder, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(10), p 4831–4835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pb-Sn Phase Diagram & Computational Thermodynamics. https://www.metallurgy.nist.gov/phase/solder/pbsn.html. Accessed 18 Mar 2018
  23. 23.
    A. Yakymovych, Y. Plevachuk, P. Svec, Sr, P. Svec, D. Janickovic, P. Sebo, N. Beronska, A. Roshanghias, and H. Ipser, Morphology and Shear Strength of Lead-Free Solder Joints with Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Paste Reinforced with Ceramic Nanoparticles, J. Electron. Mater., 2016, 45(12), p 6143–6149CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringNational Institute of Technology KarnatakaSurathkalIndia

Personalised recommendations