Advertisement

Investigation of Corrosion Behavior of Ti/TiN Multilayers on Al7075 Deposited by High-Vacuum Magnetron Sputtering in 3.5% NaCl Solution

  • Esfandiar Molavi
  • Ali Shanaghi
  • Paul K. Chu
Article
  • 84 Downloads

Abstract

Although Al 7075 has many favorable mechanical properties such as the large strength-to-weight ratio, the relatively poor corrosion resistance has restricted industrial applications. In this work, Ti/TiN as hard multilayered and nanostructured coatings are deposited on the relatively soft Al 7075 structure by high-vacuum radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and the phase, structure, and morphology are investigated in details. The corrosion behavior is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl at a pH of 7.5 for 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h. At time points of 1, 6, 12, and 24 h, primary oxide layers and double layers are formed, but the corrosive medium penetrates the primary titanium nitride columnar structure. At longer time points of 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h, formation of stronger oxide and double layers leads to better corrosion resistance which is 14.8 times better than that observed from the uncoated substrate after immersion for 36 h. According to Rct, the corrosion resistances of the short and long immersion groups are 808.5-1984 and 808.5-1248 kΩ cm2, respectively, thereby confirming the effectiveness of the Ti/TiN coating against corrosion in comparison with the corrosion resistance of 84.3 kΩ cm2 observed from the uncoated Al 7075. The smallest corrosion resistance of 808.5 kΩ cm2 observed at the time point of 24 h is 9.6 times that of the uncoated substrate.

Graphical Abstract

A 1.4-µm-thick Ti/TiN hard nanostructured coating comprising six layers is deposited on the relatively soft Al 7075 substrate by high-vacuum radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at 100 °C. The first layer of the intermediate Ti layer cannot improve the corrosion resistance of the TiN super hard coating with a columnar structure. The second and third intermediate Ti layers play an important role in improving the corrosion resistance of Al 7075 by obstructing defects and coating damage from aggressive Cl ions and penetration of water. The mechanism involves self-healing of defects by oxide formation and Warburg resistance by diffusion control.

Keywords

Al 7075 electrochemical impedance spectroscopy high-vacuum radio-frequency magnetron sputtering Ti/TiN hard multilayered nanostructured coating 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative Council. The work was financially supported by Malayer University Research Grant and Iran National Science Foundation and City University of Hong Kong Applied Research Grant (ARG) Nos. 9667122 and 96667144.

References

  1. 1.
    L.F. Mondolfo, Aluminum Alloys: Structure and Properties, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2013Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Matthews, Titanium Nitride PVD Coating Technology, Surf. Eng., 2013, 1, p 93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. Subramanian, R. Ananthakumar, and M. Jayachandran, Structural and Tribological Properties of DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtered Titanium/Titanium Nitride (Ti/TiN) Multilayered Nanostructured Coatings, Surf. Nanostruct. Coat. Technol., 2011, 205(11), p 3485–3492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    V. Merie, M. Pustan, G. Negrea, and C. Bîrleanu, Research on Titanium Nitride Thin Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering for MEMS Applications, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2015, 358, p 525–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Zhou, H. Peng, L. Zhu, H. Guo, and S. Gong, Microstructure, Hardness and Corrosion Behaviour of Ti/TiN Multilayer Coatings Produced by Plasma Activated EB-PVD, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2014, 258, p 102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Kern, Thin Film Processes II, Academic Press, Cambridge, 2012, p 0080524214Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. Auciello and J. Engemann, Multicomponent and Multilayered Thin Films for Advanced Microtechnologies: Techniques, Fundamentals and Devices, Springer, Berlin, 2012Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. Mote, Y. Purushotham, and B. Dole, Williamson-Hall Analysis in Estimation of Lattice Strain in Nanometer-Sized ZnO Particles, J. Theor. Appl. Phys., 2012, 6, p 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.S. Kim, S.Y. Lee, J.H. Hahn, B.Y. Lee, J.G. Han, J.H. Lee, and S.Y. Lee, Effects of the Thickness of Ti Buffer Layer on the Mechanical Properties of TiN Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 171, p 83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.L. Jiang, H.L. Zhu, K.S. Shin, and Y.B. Tang, Influence of Titanium Interlayer Thickness Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Ti/TiN Multilayer Coatings, Thin Solid Films, 2017, 632, p 97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.E. Orazem and B. Tribollet, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Wiley, Hoboken, 2011Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Shukla, R. Rane, J. Alphonsa, P. Maity, and S. Mukherjee, Structural, Mechanical and Corrosion Resistance Properties of Ti/TiN Bilayers Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering on AISI, 316L, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 324, p 167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.S. Lin, K.S. Zhou, M.J. Dai, F. Hu, Q. Shi, H.J. Hou, C.B. Wei, F.Q. Li, and X. Tong, Effects of Surface Roughness of Substrate on Properties of Ti/TiN/Zr/ZrN Multilayer Coatings, Trans. Nonferr. Metals Soc. China, 2015, 25, p 451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Standard, Calculation of Corrosion Rates and Related Information from Electrochemical Measurements. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International, Philadelphia, 2004Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Q. Wan, H. Ding, M.I. Yousaf, Y.M. Chen, H.D. Liu, L. Hu, and B. Yang, Corrosion Behaviors of TiN and Ti-Si-N (with 2.9 at.% and 5.0 at.% Si) Coatings by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Thin Solid Films, 2016, 616, p 601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y.-H. Chen, K.W. Lee, W.-A. Chiou, Y.-W. Chung, and L.M. Keer, Synthesis and Structure of Smooth, Superhard TiN/SiNx Multilayer Coatings with an Equiaxed Microstructure, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2001, 146–147, p 209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H.C. Barshilia, M. Surya Prakash, A. Poojari, and K.S. Rajam, Corrosion Behavior of Nanolayered TiN/NbN Multilayer Nanostructured Coatings Prepared by Reactive Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Process, Thin Solid Films, 2004, 460(1–2), p 133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Wagner, C.J. Powell, J. Allison, J. Rumble Jr., D. Blakeslee, M. Dal-Favero, NIST X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Database (Version 2.0) (1997). Retrieved from NIST Standard Reference Data Program website: http://www.nist.gov/srd
  19. 19.
    B. Subramanian, R. Ananthakumar, V.S. Vidhya, and M. Jayachandran, Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Materials Properties of Reactive DC Magnetron Sputtered Ti/TiN Multilayered Thin Films, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 2011, 176(1), p 1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y.H. Cheng, T. Browne, B. Heckerman, C. Bowman, V. Gorokhovsky, and E.I. Meletis, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiN/Ti Multilayer Coating, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2010, 205, p 146–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Ananthakumar, B. Subramanian, A. Kobayashi, and M. Jayachandran, Electrochemical Corrosion and Materials Properties of Reactively Sputtered TiN/TiAlN Multilayer Coatings, Ceram. Int., 2012, 38, p 477–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Wang, R. Zhang, Z. Yuan, X. Shu, E. Liu, and Z. Han, A Comparative Study of the Corrosion Performance of Titanium (Ti), Titanium Nitride (TiN), Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Oxides (N–TiO2), as Coatings for Biomedical Applications, Ceram. Int., 2015, 41, p 11844–11851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Elmkhah, A. Abdollah-zadeh, F. Mahboubi, A.R. Sabour Rouhaghdam, and A. Fattah-alhosseini, Correlation Between the Duty Cycle and the Surface Characteristics for the Nanostructured Titanium Aluminum Nitride Coating Deposited by Pulsed-DC PACVD technique, J. Alloy. Compd., 2017, 711, p 530–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. Altun and S. Sen, The Effect of PVD Coatings on the Wear Behaviour of Magnesium Alloys, Mater. Charact., 2007, 58, p 917–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Ćurković, H.O. Ćurković, S. Salopek, M.M. Renjo, and S. Šegota, Enhancement of Corrosion Protection of AISI, 304 Stainless Steel by Nanostructured Sol–Gel TiO2 Films, Corros. Sci., 2013, 77, p 176–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. Andrade, M. Flores, S. Muhl, N.P. Barradas, G. Murillo, E.P. Zavala, and M.F. Rocha, Ion Beam Analysis of TiN/Ti Multilayers Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B, 2004, 219–220, p 763–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    W.G. Kim and H.C. Choe, Effects of TiN Coating on the Corrosion of Nanostructured Ti–30Ta–xZr Alloys for Dental Implants, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2012, 258, p 1929–1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.A. Naghibi, K. Raeissi, and M.H. Fathi, Corrosion and Tribocorrosion Behavior of Ti/TiN PVD Coating on 316L Stainless Steel Substrate in Ringer’s Solution, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2014, 148, p 614–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Wu, A. Shanaghi, Y. Zhao, X. Zhang, R. Xu, Z. Wu, G. Li, and P.K. Chu, The Effect of Interlayer on Corrosion Resistance of Ceramic Coating/Mg Alloy Substrate in Simulated Physiological Environment, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, 206, p 4892–4898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Pourbaix, Lectures on Electrochemical Corrosion, Springer, New York, 2012Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringMalayer UniversityMalayerIran
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsCity University of Hong KongKowloonChina
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringCity University of Hong KongKowloonChina

Personalised recommendations