Skip to main content
Log in

A Study on Structural, Corrosion, and Sensitization Behavior of Ultrafine and Coarse Grain 316 Stainless Steel Processed by Multiaxial Forging and Heat Treatment

  • Published:
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Cubic specimens from AISI 316 stainless steel were multiaxially forged to 15 passes and annealed at 1200 °C for 1, 2, and 3 h and finally sensitized at 700 °C for 24 h. Examination of samples indicated that the hardness of the annealed samples was reduced from 153 to 110, 81, and 74 HV for as-received sample and under 1, 2, and 3 h of annealing, and increased from 245 to 288 HV for samples forged at 3 and 7 passes. However, no significant changes were observed in a large number of passes and at about 300 HV. Degree of sensitization of samples was increased to approximately 27.3% at 3-h annealing but reduced to 1.23% by 15 passes of MF. The potentiodynamic polarization test shows that the breakdown potentials decreased with annealing time from 0.6 to − 102 (mV/SCE) for as-received and 3-h annealed specimen. These potentials increased to approximately − 16.5 mV with the increase in MF passes to 15. These observations indicated that the chromium carbide deposition affects Cr-depleted zone, which can subsequently affect the degree of sensitization and pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. R. Wang, Z. Zheng, Q. Zhou, and Y. Gao, Effect of Surface Nanocrystallization on the Sensitization and Desensitization Behavior of Super304H Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2016, 111, p 728–741

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. M. Akita, Y. Uematsu, T. Kakiuchi, M. Nakajima, T. Tsuchiyama, Y. Bai, and K. Isono, Effect of Sensitization on Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel Annealed in Nitrogen Gas, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 640, p 33–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. L. Jinlong, L. Tongxiang, and L. Hongyun, Influence of Pre-deformation, Sensitization and Oxidation in High Temperature Water on Corrosion Resistance of AISI, 304 Stainless Steel, Nucl. Eng. Des., 2016, 306, p 1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. E. Dupin, A. Yanagida, and J. Yanagimoto, Modeling Static and Dynamic Kinetics of Microstructure Evolution in Type 316 Stainless Steel, J. Iron. Steel Res. Int., 2014, 85(6), p 1099–1108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. S.V. Muley, A.N. Vidvans, G.P. Chaudhari, and S. Udainiya, An Assessment of Ultra Fine Grained 316L Stainless Steel for Implant Applications, Acta Biomater., 2016, 30, p 408–419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. L. Jinlong, L. Tongxiang, D. Limin, and W. Chen, Influence of Sensitization on Microstructure and Passive Property of AISI, 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2016, 104, p 144–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. N. Srinivasan, V. Kain, N. Birbilis, K.V.M. Krishna, S. Shekhawat, and I. Samajdar, Near Boundary Gradient Zone and Sensitization Control in Austenitic Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2015, 100, p 544–555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. M. Chinizadeh, and S.R. Kiahosseini, Deformation, Microstructure, Hardness, and Pitting Corrosion of 316 Stainless Steel After Laser Forming: A Comparison Between Natural and Forced Cooling, J. Mater. Res., 2017, 32(16), p 1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. T.L. Christiansen, K. Ståhl, B.K. Brink, and M.A. Somers, On the Carbon Solubility in Expanded Austenite and Formation of Hägg Carbide in AISI, 316 Stainless Steel, J. Iron. Steel Res. Int., 2016, 87(11), p 1395–1405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. W. Zhang, K. Fang, Y. Hu, S. Wang, and X. Wang, Effect of Machining-Induced Surface Residual Stress on Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracking in 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2016, 108, p 173–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. S. Kumar and A. Shahi, Studies on Metallurgical and Impact Toughness Behavior of Variably Sensitized Weld Metal and Heat Affected Zone of AISI, 304L Welds, Mater. Des., 2016, 89, p 399–412

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. R. Singh, Influence of Cold Rolling on Sensitization and Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of AISI, 304 Aged at 500 °C, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2008, 206(103), p 286–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. A.S. Hamada, L.P. Karjalainen, and M.C. Somani, Electrochemical Corrosion BEHAVIOUR of a novel Submicron-Grained Austenitic Stainless Steel in an Acidic NaCl Solution, Mater. Sci. Eng., 2006, 431(1–2), p 211–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. S.R. Kiahosseini, A. Afshar, M.M. Larijani, and M. Yousefpour, Electrochemical Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite/ZrN Coated Magnesium Biodegradable Alloy in Ringer Solution as a Simulated Body Fluid, J. Chem. Health Risks, 2015, 5(1), p 45–53

    Google Scholar 

  15. R. Singh, S.G. Chowdhury, B.R. Kumar, S.K. Das, P.K. De, and I. Chattoraj, The Importance of Grain Size Relative to Grain Boundary Character on the Sensitization of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel, Scr. Mater., 2007, 57(3), p 185–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. M. Pisarek, P. Kędzierzawski, M. Janik-Czachor, and K.J. Kurzydłowski, The Effect of Hydrostatic Extrusion on Resistance of 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel to Pit Nucleation, Electrochem. Commun., 2007, 9(10), p 2463–2466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. B. Han and Z. Xu, Grain Refinement Under Multi-axial Forging in Fe–32%Ni Alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2008, 457(1–2), p 279–285

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. A. Belyakov, H. Miura, and T. Sakai, Dynamic Recrystallization in Ultra Fine-Grained 304 Stainless Steel, Scr. Mater., 2000, 43(1), p 21–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. A. Kumar, T. Jayakumar, P. Palanichamy, and B. Raj, Influence of Grain Size on Ultrasonic Spectral Parameters in AISI, Type 316 Stainless Steel, Scr. Mater., 1999, 40(3–8), p 333–340

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. P. Trivedi, K.C. Nune, R.D.K. Misra, S. Goel, R. Jayganthan, and A. Srinivasan, Grain Refinement to Submicron Regime in Multiaxial Forged Mg-2Zn-2Gd Alloy and Relationship to Mechanical Properties, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 668, p 59–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. C.T. Kwok, F.T. Cheng, H.C. Man, and W.H. Ding, Corrosion Characteristics of Nanostructured Layer on 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by Cavitation-Annealing, Mater. Lett., 2006, 60(19), p 2419–2422

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. G. Anne, M. Ramesh, H.S. Nayaka, S.B. Arya, and S. Sahu, Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of Accumulative Roll Bonded Mg-2% Zn/Al-7075 Multilayered Composite, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2017, 26(4), p 1726–1734

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. S. Sepahi-Boroujeni and A. Sepahi-Boroujeni, Improvements in Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ80 Magnesium Alloy by Means of an Efficient, Novel Severe Plastic Deformation Process, J. Manuf. Process., 2016, 24, p 71–77

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. M. Montazeri-Pour, M. Parsa, H. Jafarian, and S. Taieban, Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of AA1100 Aluminum Processed by Multi-axial Incremental Forging and Shearing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015, 639, p 705–716

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. R. Jones and V. Randle, Sensitisation Behaviour of Grain Boundary Engineered Austenitic Stainless Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2010, 527(16), p 4275–4280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. A. Joshi, N. Kumar, K. Yogesha, R. Jayaganthan, and S. Nath, Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution in Al 2014 Alloy Processed Through Multidirectional Cryoforging, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 25(7), p 3031–3045

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. X.-S. Xia, M. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, F.-Y. Fan, C.-H. Zhu, J. Huang, T.-Q. Deng, and S.-F. Zhu, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Isothermal Multi-axial Forging Formed AZ61 Mg Alloy, Trans. Nonferr. Met. Soc. China, 2013, 23(11), p 3186–3192

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. A.K. Padap, G.P. Chaudhari, S.K. Nath, and V. Pancholi, Ultrafine-Grained Steel Fabricated Using Warm Multiaxial Forging: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 527(1–2), p 110–117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. S. Li, W. Tang, R. Chen, and W. Ke, Effect of Pre-induced Twinning on Microstructure and Tensile Ductility in GW92K Magnesium Alloy During Multi-direction Forging at Decreasing Temperature, J. Magnesium Alloys, 2014, 2(4), p 287–292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. A.K. Padap, G.P. Chaudhari, V. Pancholi, and S.K. Nath, Warm Multiaxial Forging of AISI, 1016 Steel, Mater. Des., 2010, 31(8), p 3816–3824

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. A. Salandari-Rabori, A. Zarei-Hanzaki, S. Fatemi, M. Ghambari, and M. Moghaddam, Materials & Design Materials and Design Microstructure and Superior Mechanical Properties of a Multi-axially Forged WE Magnesium Alloy, J. Alloys Compd., 2017, 693, p 406–413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. S. Ghosh, A.K. Singh, and S. Mula, Effect of Critical Temperatures on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Nb-Ti Stabilized IF Steel Processed by Multiaxial Forging, Mater. Des., 2016, 100, p 47–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. F. Hu, Q. Cao, J. Xiao, X. Dong, S. Ma, and X. Zhang, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Multiple Compressed CuZn Alloy, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2016, 25(10), p 4598–4607

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. P.N. Rao, D. Singh, and R. Jayaganthan, Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Al 6061 Alloy Processed by Multidirectional Forging at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature, Mater. Des., 2014, 56, p 97–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. D. Fuloria, S. Goel, and R. Jayaganthan, D.S.R.I.V.S. Tava, G.K. Dey, and N. Saibaba, Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Ultrafine Grained Zircaloy-4 Processed Through Multiaxial Forging at Cryogenic Temperature, Trans. Nonferr. Met. Soc. China, 2015, 25, p 2221–2229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. S.R. Kiahosseini, A. Afshar, M.M. Larijani, and M. Yousefpour, Structural and Corrosion Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Zirconium nitride-Coated AZ91 MAGNESIUM alloy by Ion Beam Sputtering, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2017, 401, p 172–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. P.M. Ahmedabad, V. Kain, B.K. Dangi, and I. Samajdar, Role of Grain Boundary Nature and Residual Strain in Controlling Sensitisation of Type 304 Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2013, 66, p 242–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Y. Wang, X. Zuo, and J. Li, Corrosion Resistance of the Welded Joint of Submarine Pipeline Steel with Ferrite Plus Bainite Dual-Phase Microstructure, J. Iron. Steel Res. Int., 2015, 86(11), p 1260–1270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. K.A. Habib, M.S. Damra, J.J. Saura, I. Cervera, and J. Bellés, Breakdown and Evolution of the Protective Oxide Scales of AISI, 304 and AISI, 316 Stainless Steels under High-Temperature Oxidation, Int. J. Corros., 2011, 2011, p 1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. M. Mandel, F. Böhme, M. Hauser, M. Wendler, F. Tuchscheerer, and L. Krüger, The Influence of Plastic Deformation on the Corrosion Behavior of a Cast High-Alloy CrMnNi TRIP Steel, J. Iron. Steel Res. Int., 2016, 87(8), p 1105–1110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. N. Solomon and I. Solomon, Deformation Induced Martensite in AISI, 316 Stainless Steel, Rev. Metal., 2010, 46(2), p 121–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. C.X. Huang, W.P. Hu, Q.Y. Wang, C. Wang, G. Yang, and Y.T. Zhu, An Ideal Ultrafine-Grained Structure for High Strength and High Ductility, Mater. Res. Lett., 2015, 3(2), p 88–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. C.X. Huang, G. Yang, Y.L. Gao, S.D. Wu, and S.X. Li, Investigation on the Nucleation Mechanism of Deformation-Induced Martensite in an Austenitic Stainless Steel Under Severe Plastic Deformation, J. Mater. Res., 2007, 22(3), p 724–729

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. I.Y. Litovchenko, A.N. Tyumentsev, M. Zahozheva, and A. Korznikov, Direct and Reverse Martensitic Transformation and Formation of Nanostructured States During Severe Plastic Deformation of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci, 2012, 31, p 47–53

    Google Scholar 

  45. Z. Wang, D. Han, and X. Li, Competitive Effect of Stacking Fault Energy and Short-Range Clustering on the Plastic Deformation Behavior of Cu-Ni Alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2017, 679, p 484–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. S.R. Kiahosseini, A. Afshar, M.M. Larijani, and M. Yousefpour, Adhesion, Microstrain, and Corrosion Behavior of ZrN-Coated AZ91 Alloy as a Function of Temperature, J. Mater. Res., 2013, 28(19), p 2709–2714

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. T.M.K. Thandavan, S.M.A. Gani, C.S. Wong, and R.M. Nor, Evaluation of Williamson-Hall Strain and Stress Distribution in ZnO Nanowires Prepared Using Aliphatic Alcohol, J. Nondestr. Eval., 2015, 34(14), p 1–9

    Google Scholar 

  48. S. Fooladi, and S.R. Kiahosseini, Creation and Investigation of Chitin/HA Double-Layer Coatings on AZ91 Magnesium Alloy by Dipping Method, J. Mater. Res., 2017, 32(32), p 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  49. A.K. Shirazi and S.R. Kiahosseini, Hot Corrosion of the Ceramic Composite Coating Ni3Al–Al2O3–Al2O3/MgO Plasma Sprayed on 316L Stainless Steel, Int. J. Mater. Res., 2017, 108(8), p 675–680

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. L. Eisenhut, F. Schaefer, P. Gruenewald, L. Weiter, M. Marx, and C. Motz, Effect of a Dislocation Pile-Up at the Neutral Axis on Trans-crystalline Crack Growth for Micro-bending Fatigue, Int. J. Fatigue, 2017, 94, p 131–139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. S.S. Quek, Z.H. Chooi, Z. Wu, Y.W. Zhang, and D.J. Srolovitz, The Inverse Hall–Petch Relation in Nanocrystalline Metals: A Discrete Dislocation Dynamics Analysis, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2016, 88, p 252–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Y. Ito, K. Edalati, and Z. Horita, High-Pressure torsion of Aluminum with Ultrahigh Purity (99.9999%) and Occurrence of Inverse Hall-Petch Relationship, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2017, 679, p 428–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. J. Roa, E. Jiménez-Piqué, J. Tarragó, D. Sandoval, A. Mateo, J. Fair, and L. Llanes, Hall-Petch Strengthening of the Constrained Metallic Binder in WC–Co Cemented Carbides: Experimental Assessment by Means of Massive Nanoindentation and Statistical Analysis, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 676, p 487–491

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Y. Kong, L. Shen, Y. Shen, and Z. Chen, Interfacial Effect on Strengthening Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers—A Combined Hall-Petch Relation and Atomistic Simulation Study, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 663, p 29–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. E. Fetullazade, H.K. Akyildiz, and S. Saritas, Effects of the Machining Conditions on the Strain Hardening and the Residual Stresses at the Roots of Screw Threads, Mater. Des., 2010, 31, p 2025–2031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. I.O. Akhundov, D.M. Kazantsev, V.L. Alperovich, N.S. Rudaya, E.E. Rodyakina, and A.V. Latyshev, Formation and Interaction of Dislocation-Induced and Vicinal Monatomic Steps on a GaAs(001) Surface Under Stress Relaxation, Scr. Mater., 2016, 114, p 125–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. H. Zare, M. Jahedi, M.R. Toroghinejad, M. Meratian, and M. Knezevic, Compressive, Shear, and Fracture Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Manufactured by Severe Plastic Deformation, Mater. Des., 2016, 106, p 112–119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. H. Parvin and M. Kazeminezhad, Development a Dislocation Density Based Model Considering the Effect of Stacking Fault Energy: Severe Plastic Deformation, Comput. Mater. Sci., 2014, 95, p 250–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. J. Jiang, D. Xu, T. Xi, M.B. Shahzad, M.S. Khan, J. Zhao, X. Fan, C. Yang, T. Gu, and K. Yang, Effects of Aging Time on Intergranular and Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Cu-Bearing 304L Stainless Steel in Comparison with 304L Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2016, 113, p 46–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. L. Peguet, B. Malki, and B. Baroux, Influence of Cold Working on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels, Corros. Sci., 2007, 49(4), p 1933–1948

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Seyed Rahim Kiahosseini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kiahosseini, S.R., Mohammadi Baygi, S.J., Khalaj, G. et al. A Study on Structural, Corrosion, and Sensitization Behavior of Ultrafine and Coarse Grain 316 Stainless Steel Processed by Multiaxial Forging and Heat Treatment. J. of Materi Eng and Perform 27, 271–281 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-017-3095-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-017-3095-7

Keywords

Navigation