Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 3657–3664 | Cite as

Dilution and Ferrite Number Prediction in Pulsed Current Cladding of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel Using RSM



Super-duplex stainless steels have an excellent combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance at relatively low temperatures and can be used as a coating to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of low carbon and low alloy steels. Such coatings can be produced using weld cladding. In this study, pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process was utilized to deposit super-duplex stainless steel on high strength low alloy steel substrates. In such claddings, it is essential to understand how the dilution affects the composition and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel layer in order to be able to estimate its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the current study, the effect of pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process parameters on the dilution and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel clad layer was investigated by applying response surface methodology. The validity of the proposed models was investigated by using quadratic regression models and analysis of variance. The results showed an inverse relationship between dilution and ferrite number. They also showed that increasing the heat input decreases the ferrite number. The proposed mathematical models are useful for predicting and controlling the ferrite number within an acceptable range for super-duplex stainless steel cladding.


cladding dilution ferrite number high strength low alloy steel response surface methodology super-duplex stainless steel 


  1. 1.
    M. Yousefieh, M. Shamanian, and A. Saatchi, Optimization of the Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) Parameters for Corrosion Resistance of Super Duplex Stainless Steel (UNS S32760) Welds Using the Taguchi Method, J. Alloys Compd., 2011, 509(3), p 782–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Li, T. Wu, and Y. Riquier, σ Phase Precipitation and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of a Super Duplex Stainless Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 1994, 174(2), p 149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.E. Wilms, V.J. Gadgil, J.M. Krougman, and F.P. Ijsseling, The Effect of σ-Phase Precipitation at 800°C on the Corrosion Resistance in Sea-Water of a High Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 1994, 36(5), p 871–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H.M. Ezuber, A. El-Houd, and F. El-Shawesh, Effects of Sigma Phase Precipitation on Seawater Pitting of Duplex Stainless Steel, Desalination, 2007, 207(1–3), p 268–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.M. Escriba, E. Materna-Morris, R.L. Plaut, and A.F. Padilha, Chi-Phase Precipitation in a Duplex Stainless Steel, Mater. Charact., 2009, 60(11), p 1214–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Nowacki and A. Łukojc, Microstructural Transformations of Heat Affected Zones in Duplex Steel Welded Joints, Mater. Charact., 2006, 56(4–5), p 436–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Ramirez, J.C. Lippold, and S. Brandi, The Relationship Between Chromium Nitride and Secondary Austenite Precipitation in Duplex Stainless Steels, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2003, 34(8), p 1575–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.C. Lippold and D.J. Kotecki, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, Wiley, Hoboken, 2005, p 288–291Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Kaçar, Effect of Solidification Mode and Morphology of Microstructure on the Hydrogen Content of Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal, Mater. Des., 2004, 25(1), p 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.N. Gunn, Duplex Stainless Steels Microstructure: Properties and Applications, Woodhead Publishing, Abington, 1997, p 116–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Martins and L.C. Casteletti, Microstructural Characteristics and Corrosion Behavior of a Super Duplex Stainless Steel Casting, Mater. Charact., 2009, 60(2), p 150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Chen, H. Tan, Z. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Jiang, Influence of Cooling Rate on Microstructure Evolution and Pitting Corrosion Resistance in the Simulated Heat-Affected Zone of 2304 Duplex Stainless Steels, Corros. Sci., 2012, 58(5), p 168–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Yang, B. Yan, J. Li, and J. Wang, The Effect of Large Heat Input on the Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviour of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2011, 53(11), p 3756–3763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.L. O’Brien, Jefferson’s Welding Encyclopedia, American Welding Society, 1997, p 124–125Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    F. Madadi, M. Shamanian, and F. Ashrafizadeh, Effect of Pulse Current on Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Stellite6/Tungsten Carbide Claddings Produced by Tungsten Inert Gas Process, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2011, 205(17–18), p 4320–4328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Kannan and N. Murugan, Prediction of Ferrite Number of Duplex Stainless Steel Clad Metals Using RSM, Weld. J., 2006, 85(5), p 91–100Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Rokanopoulou and G.D. Papadimitriou, Titanium Carbide/Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) Metal Matrix Composite Coatings Prepared by the Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Technique: Microstructure and Wear Properties, J. Coat. Technol. Res., 2011, 8(3), p 427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F. Madadi, F. Ashrafizadeh, and M. Shamanian, Optimization of Pulsed TIG Cladding Process of Stellite Alloy on Carbon Steel Using RSM, J. Alloys Compd., 2012, 510(1), p 71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Kangas, B. Walden, G. Berglund, and M. Nicholls, Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steel and Use of the Steel, EP 94919946 A, Sandvik Aktiebolag, October 1999, p 5–6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Kannan and N. Murugan, Effect of Flux Cored Arc Welding Process Parameters on Duplex Stainless Steel Clad Quality, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2006, 176(1–3), p 230–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.L. O’Brien, Jefferson’s Welding Encyclopedia, American Welding Society, 1997, p 324Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C.-H. Tsai, K.-H. Hou, and H.-T. Chuang, Fuzzy Control of Pulsed GTA Welds by Using Real-Time Root Bead Image Feedback, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2006, 176(1–3), p 158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Goupy and L. Creighton, Introduction to Design of Experiments with JMP Examples, 3rd ed., SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2007, p 247–261Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    “Standard Procedures for Calibrating Magnetic Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite Content of Austenitic and Duplex Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal,” A4.2-97, ANSI/AWS, p 9Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.J. Kotecki, A Martensite Boundary on the WRC-1992 Diagram—Part 2: The Effect of Manganese, Weld. J., 2000, 79(12), p 346–354Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.H.I. Mourad, A. Khourshid, and T. Sharef, Gas Tungsten Arc and Laser Beam Welding Processes Effects on Duplex Stainless Steel 2205 Properties, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2012, 549, p 105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.M. Vitek, S.A. David, and C.R. Hinman, Improved Ferrite Number Prediction Model that Accounts for Cooling Rate Effects—Part 1: Model development, Weld. J., 2003, 82(1), p 10–17Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    ASM Metal Handbook, Vol. 9: Metallography and Microstructures, ASM International, 2004, p 1598Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G.A. López, E.J. Mittemeijer, and B.B. Straumal, Grain Boundary Wetting by a Solid Phase; Microstructural Development in a Zn-5 wt% Al Alloy, Acta Mater., 2004, 52(15), p 4537–4545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    B.B. Straumal, Y.O. Kucheev, L.I. Efron, A.L. Petelin, J.D. Majumdar, and I. Manna, Complete and Incomplete Wetting of Ferrite Grain Boundaries by Austenite in the Low-Alloyed Ferritic Steel, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2012, 21(5), p 667–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abbas Eghlimi
    • 1
  • Morteza Shamanian
    • 1
  • Keyvan Raeissi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations