Epoxidized Soybean Oil: Evaluation of Oxidative Stabilization and Metal Quenching/Heat Transfer Performance
- 202 Downloads
Vegetable and animal oils as a class of fluids have been used for hundreds of years, if not longer, as quenchants for hardening steel. However, when petroleum oils became available in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the use of these fluids as quenchants, in addition to their use in other industrial oil applications, quickly diminished. This was primarily, but not exclusively, due to their generally very poor thermal-oxidative instability and the difficulty for formulating fluid analogs with varying viscosity properties. Interest in the use of renewable fluids, such as vegetable oils, has increased dramatically in recent years as alternatives to the use of relatively non-biodegradable and toxic petroleum oils. However, the relatively poor thermal-oxidative stability has continued to be a significant reason for their general non-acceptance in the marketplace. Soybean oil (SO) is one of the most highly produced vegetable oils in Brazil. Currently, there are commercially produced epoxidized versions of SO which are available. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential use of epoxidized SO and its heat transfer properties as a viable alternative to petroleum oils for hardening steel.
Keywordsepoxidized soybean oil heat transfer quenching
The authors gratefully acknowledge Inbra (Indústrias Químicas Ltda), Cognis Brasil Ltda, and Quimifort Indústria e Comércio Ltda. for donating the ESBO, FAME, and mineral oil quenchant fluids, respectively, and Tecumseh do Brasil Ltda for allowing the use of their Chemical Laboratory for viscosity measurements. The authors also acknowledge CAPES—Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior and Universidade de São Paulo (USP).
- 2.R. Goyan, R.E. Melley, P.A. Wissner, and W.C. Ong, Biodegradable Lubricants, Lubr. Eng., 1998, 54(7), p 10–17Google Scholar
- 5.A. Adhvaryu, S.Z. Erhan, Z.S. Liu, and J.M. Perez, Oxidation Kinetic Studies of Oils Derived from Unmodified and Genetically Modified Vegetables Using Pressurized Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Thermochim. Acta, 2000, 364, p 87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.M. Schneider, Government Industry Forum on Non-Food Uses of Crops (GFGNFG 7/7), (2002)—Case Study: Plant Oil Based Lubricants in Total Loss and Potential Loss Applications, Final Report Prepared for P. Smith, Network Manager, University of York, 2002Google Scholar
- 9.E.C. Souza, L.C.F. Canale, and G.E. Totten, Vegetable Oil Structure and Antioxidants, Conference Proceedings of New Challenges in Heat Treating and Surface Engineering—Conference in Honor of Božidar Lišcić, June 9–12, Cavtat, Croatia, Croatian Society for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, Zagreb, 2009, p 45–52Google Scholar
- 11.P.L. Julian, H.T. Iveson, and S.B. Radlove, Hydroxylation of Vegetable Oils and Products Thereof, U.S. Patent 2,752,376, 1956Google Scholar
- 12.T.W. Findley, J.L. Ohlson, and F.E. Kuester, Treatment of Epoxy Fatty Compositions, U.S. Patent 3,035,069, 1962Google Scholar
- 14.S.Z. Erhan, A. Adhvaryu, and Z. Liu, Chemically Modified Vegetable Oil-Based Industrial Fluid, U.S. Patent 6,583,302 B1, 2003Google Scholar
- 16.K.M. Doll, B.K. Sharma, and S.Z. Erhan, Friction Reducing Properties and Stability of Epoxidized Oleochemicals, Clean, 2008, 36(8), p 700–705Google Scholar
- 17.N.I. Kobasko, E. Carvalho de Souza, L.C.F. Canale, and G.E. Totten, Vegetable Oil Quenchants: Calculation and Comparison of the Cooling Properties of a Series of Vegetable Oils, Strojniški vestnik—J. Mech. Eng., 2010, 56(2), p 131–142Google Scholar
- 18.G.S. Sarmiento, A. Gastón, and J. Vega, Inverse Heat Conduction Coupled with Phase Transformation Problems in Heat Treating Process, Computational Mechanics—New Trends and Applications, E. Oñate and S.R. Idelsohn, Eds., CIMNE, Barcelona, 1998, CD Book, Part VI, Section 1, Paper 16Google Scholar
- 19.J. Clark and R. Tye, Thermophysical Properties Reference Data for Some Key Engineering Alloys, High Temp.—High Press., 2003/2004, 35/36, p 1–14Google Scholar