In the present study, Sn-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solders used in the electronics packaging industry were reinforced with different volume percentages of nano-size alumina and tin oxide particulates, respectively, to synthesize two new sets of nanocomposites. These composites were developed using microwave-assisted powder metallurgy route followed by extrusion. The effects of addition of particulates on the physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Mechanical properties (microhardness, 0.2% YS, and UTS) for both composite systems increase with the presence of particulates. The best tensile strength was realized for composite solders reinforced with 1.5 vol.% alumina and 0.7 vol.% tin oxide particulates, which far exceeds the strength of eutectic Sn-Pb solder. The morphology of pores was observed to be one of the most dominating factors affecting the strength of materials.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
P.T. Vianco, Handbook of Lead-free Solder Technology for Microelectronic Assemblies, New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2004, p 167–210.
M. Abtew and D. Selvaduray, Lead-free solders in microelectronics, Mater. Sci. Eng. R: Reports, Vol. 27, No. 5 - 6, 2000, p 95–141.
European Lead-free Soldering Network, Lead-free Soldering Status Survey 2006. http://www.europeanleadfree.net. Assessed on 10 April 2008.
R.M. German, Sintering theory and practice, New York, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1996.
J.P. Schaffer, A. Saxena, S.D. Antolovich, T.H. Sanders and S.B. Warner, The science and design of engineering materials, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1999.
J. Cheng, D.K. Agrawal, S. Komaneni, M. Mattis and R. Roy, Microwave processing of WC-Co composites and ferroic titanates, Mater. Res. Innov., Vol. 1, 1997, p 44–52.
R.M. Anklekar, D.K. Agrawal and R. Roy, Microwave sintering and mechanical properties of PM copper steel, Powder Metall., 2001, Vol. 44, p 355–362.
M. Gupta, W.L.E. Wong, Overall mechanical performance of metallic materials using two-directional microwave assisted rapid sintering, Scripta Mater., Vol. 52, 2005, p 479–483.
J.M. Kim, J.P. Jung, Y.N. Zhou and J.Y. Kim, Ambient temperature ultrasonic bonding of Si-dice using Sn-3.5wt.%Ag, J. Electron. Mater., Vol. 37, No. 3, 2008, p 324–330.
Y. Tomita, M. Tago, Y. Nemoto, and K. Takahashi, Electronic Mater. Pack., EMAP 2001, 19–22 Nov 2001, p 107
P.H. Lawyer, D. Choudhury, M.D. Wetzel, and D.B. Rensch, Electro. Manuf. Tech. Sym. 23rd IEEE/CPMT, 19–21 Oct 1998, p 390
M.E. Alam and M. Gutpa, Effects of Sintering and Its Type on Microstructural and Tensile Response of Pure Tin, Powder Metall., 2008. doi:10.1179/174329008X 284895
M.E. Alam and M. Gupta, Tensile Behavior of Tin Sintered Using Microwaves and Radiant Heating, Proceedings of ICME 2007, ICME07-AM-15, 29–31 Dec 2007, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2007
P. Babaghorbani, S.M.L. Nai, and M. Gupta, Development of Lead-free Nanocomposite Solders Using Oxide Based Reinforcement, Proceedings of ASME IMECE 2008, 31 Oct-6 Nov 2008, Boston, USA, 2008
X.L. Zhong and M. Gupta, Development of Lead-free Sn-0.7Cu/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Solders with Superior Strength, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 41, 2008, p 095403
X.L. Zhong and M. Gupta, Synthesis and Characterization of Lead-free Solder/Nano-Alumina Composites, Proceedings in Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials (PFAM XVI) 2007, 17–19 Dec 2007, p 186–195
M. Gupta, M.O. Lai and D. Saravanaranganathan, Synthesis, microstructure and properties characterization of disintegrated melt deposited Mg/SiC composites, J. Mater. Sci., Vol 35, 2000, p 2155-2165.
W.L.E. Wong and M. Gupta, Improving overall mechanical performance of magnesium using nano-alumina reinforcement and energy efficient microwave assisted processing route, Adv. Eng. Mater., Vol. 9, No. 10, 2007, p 902-909.
R.M. German, Powder metallurgy science, Princeton, NJ, Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1994, p 261–264.
M.J. Tan and X. Zhang, Powder metal matrix composites: selection and processing, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 244, 1998, p 80–85.
H. Mavoori and S. Jin, New, creep-resistant, low melting point solders with ultrafine oxide dispersions, J. Electron. Mater., Vol. 27, 1998, p 1216-1222.
X.L. Zhong, M. Gupta, High strength lead-free composite solder materials using nano-Al2O3 as reinforcement, Adv. Eng. Mater., Vol. 7, No. 11, 2005, p 1049–1054.
S.M.L. Nai, J. Wei, and M. Gupta, Development of Advanced Lead-free Solder Based Interconnect Materials Containing Nanosized Y2O3 Particulates, Proceedings of ASME IMECE 2005, 5–11 Nov 2005, Orlando, USA, 2005
S.M.L. Nai, J. Wei and M. Gupta, Development of lead-free solder composites containing nanosized hybrid (ZrO2 + 8 mol.% Y2O3) particulates, Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 111, 2006, p 59-62.
D.J. Lloyd, Particle reinforced aluminium and magnesium matrix composites, Int. Mater. Rev., Vol. 39, No. 1, 1994, p 1–23.
I. Shao, P. M. Verrcken, C. L. Chien, P. C. Searson and R. C. Cammarata, Synthesis and characterization of particle-reinforced Ni/Al2O3 nanocomposites, J. Mater. Res., Vol. 17, 2002, p 1412–1418.
L. Thilly, M. Véron, O. Ludwig and F. Lecouturier, Deformation mechanism in high strength Cu/Nb nanocomposites, Mater. Sc.i Eng. A, Vol. 309, 2001, p 510–513.
G.E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill, Inc., USA, 1976, p 191–193.
Q. Zhang and D. L. Chen, A model for predicting the particle size dependence of the low cycle fatigue life in discontinuously reinforced MMCs, Scripta Mater., Vol. 51, 2004, p 863–867.
N. Hansen, The effect of grain size and strain on the tensile flow stress of aluminium at room temperature, Acta Metal., Vol. 25, No. 8, 1977, p 863–869.
D. C. Dunand and A. Mortensen, On plastic relaxation of thermal stresses in reinforced metals, Acta Metall. Mater., Vol. 39, No. 2, 1991, p 127–139.
Z. Sz′araz, Z. Trojanov′a, M. Cabbibo and E. Evangelista, Strengthening in a WE54 magnesium alloy containing SiC particles, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 462, 2007, p 225–229.
N. Ramakrishnan, An analytical study on strengthening of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites, Acta Mater., Vol. 44, No. 1, 1996, p 69–77.
C. Tekmen, I. Ozdemir, Ü. Cöcen, K. Önel, The mechanical response of Al–Si–Mg/SiCp composite: influence of porosity, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 360, 2003, p 365–371.
S.M.L. Nai, J. Wei and M. Gupta, Lead-free solder reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, J. Electron. Mater., Vol. 35, No. 7, 2006, p 1518-1522.
L. Wang, D.Q. Yu, S.Q. Han, H.T. Ma, and H.P. Xie, The Evaluation of the New Composite Lead Free Solders with the Novel Fabricating Process, Int’l. Conference on the Business of Electron. Product Reliability and Liability, 2004, p 50–56
S. Ugandhar, N. Srikanth, M. Gupta, S.K. Sinha, Enhancing the Properties of Magnesium using SiC Particulates in Sub-micron Length Scale, Adv. Eng. Mater., Vol. 6, No. 12, 2003, p 957–964.
K.S. Tun and M. Gupta, Improving mechanical properties of magnesium using nano-yttria reinforcement and microwave-assisted powder metallurgy method, Compos. Sci. & Tech., Vol. 67, No. 13, 2007, p 2657–2664.
The authors acknowledge the support received for this research work ref: C-534-000-003-414 from the Minerals, Metals and Materials Technology Centre (M3TC) of the National University of Singapore.
About this article
Cite this article
Nai, S.M.L., Kuma, J.V.M., Alam, M.E. et al. Using Microwave-Assisted Powder Metallurgy Route and Nano-size Reinforcements to Develop High-Strength Solder Composites. J. of Materi Eng and Perform 19, 335–341 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-009-9481-z
- lead-free solder
- metal-matrix nanocomposite
- microwave sintering
- tensile properties