Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels

Abstract

Hardness values as well as yield and tensile strength values were compiled for over 150 nonaustenitic, hypoeutectoid steels having a wide range of compositions and a variety of microstructures. The microstructures include ferrite, pearlite, martensite, bainite, and complex multiphase structures. The yield strength of the steels ranged from approximately 300 MPa to over 1700 MPa. Tensile strength varied over the range of 450-2350 MPa. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the yield strength and the tensile strength to the diamond pyramid hardness values for these steels. Both the yield strength and tensile strength of the steels exhibited a linear correlation with the hardness over the entire range of strength values. Empirical relationships are provided that enable the estimation of strength from a bulk hardness measurement. A weak effect of strain-hardening potential on the hardness-yield strength relationship was also observed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    D. Tabor, The Hardness and Strength of Metals, J. Inst. Met., 79, 1951, p 1–18

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    M.C. Shaw, G.J. DeSalvo, A New Approach to Plasticity and Its Application to Blunt Two Dimensional Indenters, Trans. ASME J. Eng. Ind., 92, 1970, p 469–479

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    M.C. Shaw, G.J. DeSalvo, The Role of Elasticity in Hardness Testing, Met. Eng. Quart., 12, 1972, p 1–7

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    The Science of Hardness Testing, J.H. Westbrook and H. Conrad, Eds., American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, USA, 1973, p 75–79

  5. 5.

    J.R. Cahoon, W.H. Broughton, A.R. Kutzak, The Determination of Yield Strength from Hardness Measurements, Metall. Trans., 2, 1971, p 1979–1983

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    J.R. Cahoon, An Improved Equation Relating Hardness to Ultimate Strength, Metall. Trans., 3, 1972, p 3040

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    C.Y. Hsu, Correlation of Hot-Microhardness with Elevated-Temperature Tensile Properties of Low Activation Ferritic Steel, J. Nucl. Mater., 141–143, 1986, p 518–522

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    J. Moteff, R.K. Bhargava, W.L. McCullough, Correlation of the Hot-Hardness With the Tensile Strength of 304 Stainless Steel to Temperatures of 1200 °C, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 6A, 1975, p 1101–1104

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    L. Addessio, “The Effect of Strain Rate and Tempering on the Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Martensite,” MS Thesis T-6267, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 2007

  10. 10.

    N.E. Aloi, “Hot Deformation, Microstructure, and Property Analysis of Ferritic/Pearlitic and Bainitic Microalloyed Forging Steels,” MS Thesis T-4617, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1994

  11. 11.

    P.I. Anderson, “Induction Hardening Response of Ferrite and Pearlite Banded Steel,” MS Thesis T-6083, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 2005

  12. 12.

    S.F. Biagiotti, “Effect of Nickel on Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistance in Steels,” MS Thesis T-4486, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1994

  13. 13.

    J. Cross, “Effects of Microstructure on the Fire-resistant Properties of HSLA Structural Steels,” MS Thesis T-6102, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 2006

  14. 14.

    J.L. Cunningham, “Effects of Induction Hardening and Prior Cold Work on a Microalloyed Medium-carbon Steel,” MS Thesis T-4916, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1996

  15. 15.

    B.A. James, “Interactive Effects of Phosphorus and Tin on Carbide Evolution and Fatigue and Fracture Properties in 5160 Steel,” PhD Thesis T-4616, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1994

  16. 16.

    J.A. Johnson, “Fatigue of Microalloyed Bar Steels,” MS Thesis T-5285, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1999

  17. 17.

    J.S. Keske, “Reheat-cracking Sensitivity in ASTM A514 Steels as Influenced by Sulfur and Boron,” MS Thesis T-5279, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1999

  18. 18.

    B.G. Kirby, “Microstructural and Performance Optimization of Microalloyed Bar and Forging Steels,” MS Thesis T-4287, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1992

  19. 19.

    M.J. Leap, “The Effects of Forging on the Microstructural Development, Strength, and Dynamic Fracture Behavior of Microalloyed Ferrite-Pearlite Steels,” MS Thesis T-3276, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1987

  20. 20.

    M.J. Merwin, “The Effects of Titanium Nitride Particles and Free Nitrogen on the Heat-affected Zone Toughness of API-2Y Type Plate Steels,” PhD Thesis T-4961, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1997

  21. 21.

    A.J. Nagy Bailey, “Effects of Silicon and Retained Austenite on Direct-cooled Microalloyed Forging Steels with Bainitic Microstructures,” MS Thesis T-4709, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1995

  22. 22.

    E.J. Pavlina, “Assessment of the Mechanical Properties of Dual Phase Steels in Tubular Products,” MS Thesis T-6271, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 2007

  23. 23.

    S.A. Richardson, “The Effects of Thermal Processing on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HSLA-100 Plate Steel,” MS Thesis T-3949, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1990

  24. 24.

    E.J. Schultz, “The Effect of the Hot-roll Reduction Ratio on Fully Reversed Axial Fatigue Properties of a Continuously-cast and Hardened 4140 Steel,” MS Thesis T-4267, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1992

  25. 25.

    D.A. Shepherd, “The Effect of Strain Rate on the Hot Deformation Behavior of Microalloyed Bar Steels at Warm Forging Temperature,” MS Thesis T-4196, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1999

  26. 26.

    L.P. Turner, “The Relationship of Friction, Formability and Normal Anisotropy in SAE 1012 Modified Steel,” MS Thesis T-4554, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1994

  27. 27.

    M. Walp, “Fire-Resistant Steels for Construction Applications,” MS Thesis T-5782, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 2002

  28. 28.

    G.C. Yerby, “The Effects of Direct Quenching after Forging on the Mechanical Properties of Medium-Carbon Steel,” MS Thesis T-4901, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 1996

  29. 29.

    “Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, and Scleroscope Hardness,” E 140-05 2005, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 3.01. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA, p 308–328

  30. 30.

    W.D. Callister Jr., Materials Science and Engineering, 5th Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2000, p 139–140

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    R. Clark Jr., B. Coughran, I. Traina, A. Hernandez, T. Scheck, C. Etuk, J. Peters, E.W. Lee, L. Ogren, O.S. Es-Said, On the Correlation of Mechanical and Physical Properties of 7075-T6 Al Alloy. Eng. Fail. Anal., 12, 2005, p 520–526

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    C.H. Cáceres, J.R. Griffiths, A.R. Pakdel, C.J. Davidson, Microhardness Mapping and the Hardness-Yield Strength Relationship in High-pressure Diecast Magnesium Alloy AZ91, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 402, 2005, p 258–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    C.H. Cáceres, W.J. Poole, A.L. Bowles, C.J. Davidson, Section Thickness, Macrohardness and Yield Strength in High-pressure Diecast Magnesium Alloy AZ91, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 402, 2005, p 269–277

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge B.S. Levy and K.D. Clarke for helpful discussions about the data analysis.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E.J. Pavlina.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pavlina, E., Van Tyne, C. Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels. J. of Materi Eng and Perform 17, 888–893 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-008-9225-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • hardness testing
  • steels
  • tensile testing