Skip to main content

Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance

Abstract

The material showing the greatest promise today for production of large-volume gamma-ray spectrometers operable at room temperature is cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Unfortunately, because of deficiencies in the quality of the present material, high-resolution CZT spectrometers have thus far been limited to relatively small dimensions, which makes them inefficient at detecting high photon energies and ineffective for weak radiation signals except in near proximity. To exploit CZT fully, it will be necessary to make substantial improvements in the material quality. Improving the material involves advances in the crystallinity, purity, carrier lifetimes, and control of the electrical compensation mechanism. A more detailed understanding of the underlying material problems limiting the performance of CZT gamma-ray detectors is required; otherwise, problems with supply, delivery times, and unit cost of large-volume (>5 cm3 active volume) CZT spectrometers are expected to continue. A variety of analytical and numerical techniques have been employed to quantify crystallinity, strain, impurities, compositional and stoichiometric variations, bulk and surface defect states, carrier mobilities and lifetimes, electric field distributions, and surface passivation. Data from these measurements were correlated with spatial maps of the gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopic response, and feedback on the effectiveness of crystal growth and detector fabrication procedures has been generated. The results of several of these analytical techniques will be presented in this paper.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. “Semiconductors for Room-Temperature Nuclear Detector Applications,” Semiconductors and Semimetals, ed. T.E. Schlesinger and R.B. James, Vol. 40 (New York: Academic, 1995).

    Google Scholar 

  2. C.J. Johnson, E.E. Eissler, S.E. Cameron, Y. Kong, S. Fan, S. Jovanovic and K.G. Lynn, Semiconductor for Room-Temperature Radiation Detector Applications, Vol. 302, ed. R.B. James, T.E. Schlesinger, P. Siffert and L. Franks (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society, 1993), p. 463.

    Google Scholar 

  3. F.P. Doty, J.F. Butler, J. Schetzina and K. Bowers, J. Vac. Sci. and Tech. B 10, 1418 (1992).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. J.E. Toney, B.A. Brunett, T.E. Schlesinger, J.M. van Scyoc, R.B. James, M. Schieber, M. Schieber, M. Goorsky, H. Yoon, E. Eissler and C. Johnson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 380, 132 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. J.E. Toney, B.A. Brunett, T.E. Schlesinger, H. Yoon, J.M. van Scyoc, A.J. Antolak, D.H. Morse, E.E. Eissler, C.J. Johnson, J.C. Lund and R.B. James, Hard X-Ray/Gamma-Ray and Neutron Optics, Sensors, and Applications, Vol. 2859 (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1996), p. 17.

    Google Scholar 

  6. J.F. Butler, C.L. Lingren and F.P. Doty, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 39, 605 (1992).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. H. Yoon, J.M. van Scyoc, M.S. Goorsky, H. Hermon, M. Schieber, J.C. Lund and R.B. James, J. Electron. Mater. 26 (6), 529 (1997).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. M. Schieber, R.B. James, J.C. Lund, R.W. Olsen, D.S. McGregor, J.M. van Scyoc, E. Soria and E. Bauser, Nucl. Inst. and Meth. A 377, 492 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. J.C. Lund, J.M. van Scyoc, D.S. McGregor, R.W. Olsen and R.B. James, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 380, 256 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. J.M. van Scyoc, J.C. Lund, D.H. Morse, A.J. Antolak, R.W. Olsen, R.B. James, M. Schieber, H. Yoon, M.S. Goorsky, J. Toney and T.E. Schlesinger, J. Electron. Mater. 25, 1323 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  11. J.E. Toney, B.A. Brunett, T.E. Schlesinger and R.B. James, IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 44 (4), 1684 (1977).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. J.E. Toney, B.A. Brunett, T.E. Schlesinger, R.B. James and E. Eissler, IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 44 (3), 499 (1997).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. J.R. Heffelfinger, D.L. Medlin, H. Yoon and R.B. James, Proc. Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, Vol. 3115, ed. R.B. Hoover and F.P. Doty (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1997), p. 40.

    Google Scholar 

  14. A. Burger, K.T. Chen, D. Shi, W.E. Collins and R.B. James, Proc. Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, Vol. 3115, ed. R.B. Hoover and F.P. Doty (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1997), p. 70.

    Google Scholar 

  15. J.C. Lund, J. van Scyoc, R. Olsen and R.B. James, IEEE Trans. on Nucl. Sci. 43, 1411 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. M. Richter and P. Siffert, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 323, 529 (1992).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Y. Eisen and Y. Horovitz, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 353, 60 (1994).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. P.N. Luke and E.E. Eissler, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 1481 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. P.N. Luke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1884 (1994).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. H.H. Barrett, J.D. Eskin and H.B. Barber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 156 (1995).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. M. Amman and P.N. Luke, Proc. of Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, Vol. 3115, ed. R.B. Hoover and F.P. Doty (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1997), p. 205.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Z. He, G.F. Knoll, D.K. Wehe and J. Miyamoto, IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Conf. Record, ed. A. Del Guerra, (New York: IEEE, 1997), p. 331.

    Google Scholar 

  23. H. Walter Yao, R.J. Anderson and R.B. James, Proc. of Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, Vol. 3115, ed. R.B. Hoover and F.P. Doty (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1997), p. 62.

    Google Scholar 

  24. B.A. Brunett, H. Yoon, J. van Seyoc, J. Lund, R.B. James and T.E. Schlesinger, Semiconductors for Room-Temperature Radiation Detectors II, ed. R.B. James, T.E. Schlesinger, M. Cuzin, P. Siffert, M. Squillante and W. Dusi (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society, 1998), p. 39.

    Google Scholar 

  25. H. Yoon, J.M. van Scyoc, M.S. Goorsky, B.A. Brune and R.B. James, Semiconductors for Room Temperature Radiation Detectors II, ed. R.B. James, T.E. Schlesinger, M. Cuzin, P. Siffert, M. Squillante and W. Dusi (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Resarch Society, 1998), p. 115.

    Google Scholar 

  26. H. Yao, R.J. Anderson, R.B. James and R.W. Olsen, Semiconductors for Room-Temperature Radiation Detectors II, ed. R.B. James, T.E. Schlesinger, M. Cuzin, P. Siffert, M. Squillante and W. Dusi (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society, 1998), p. 51.

    Google Scholar 

  27. C.L. Lingren, B. Apotovsky, J.F. Butler, F.P. Doty, S.J. Friesenhahn, A. Oganesyan, B. Pi and S. Zhao, Semiconductors for Room-Temperature Radiation Detectors II, ed., R.B. James, T.E. Schlesinger, M. Cuzin, P. Siffert, M. Squillante and W. Dusi (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society, 1998), p. 263.

    Google Scholar 

  28. C.L. Lingren, S.J. Friesenhahn, J.F. Butler, B. Pi, B. Apotovsky, T.C. Collins and F.P. Doty, IEEE Conf. Record of 1997 Nuclear Science Symp., ed. O. Nalcioglu, in press.

  29. R. Arlt, V. Ivanov and A. Khusainov, Proc. of Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, Vol. 3115, ed. R.B. Hoover and F.P. Doty (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1997), p. 76.

    Google Scholar 

  30. J. Shen, D.K. Aidun, L. Regel, and W.R. Wilcox, J. Cryst. Growth 132, 250 (1993).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. D.J. Williams, Narrow Gap Cadmium-Based Compounds, ed. P. Capper (Stevenage, U.K.: INSPEC, 1994), p. 510.

    Google Scholar 

  32. J. Heffelfinger, D.L. Medlin and R.B. James Semiconductors for Room-Temperature Radiation Detectors II, ed. R.B. James, T.E. Schlesinger, M. Cuzin, P. Siffert, M. Squillante and W. Dusi (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society, 1998), p. 33.

    Google Scholar 

  33. H.R. Vydyanath, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1476 (1992).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. S.U. Egarievwe, K.T. Chen, A. Burger, R.B. James and C.M. Lisse, J. X-Ray Sci. and Technol. 6, 309 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. A. Burger, unpublished.

  36. J.C. Lund, H. Yoon, N.R. Hilton, B.A. Brunett and R.B. James, Proc. of Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, Vol. 3115, ed. R.B. Hoover and F.P. Doty (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1997), p. 190.

    Google Scholar 

  37. C.M. Stahle, Z.Q. Shi, K. Hu, S.D. Barthelmy, S.J. Snodgrass, L.M. Bartlett, P.K. Shu, S.J. Lehtonen and K.J. Mach, Proc. of Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, Vol. 3115, ed. R.B. Hoover and F.P. Doty (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), p. 90.

    Google Scholar 

  38. H. Hermon, unpublished.

  39. H. Chen, S.U. Egarievwe, Z. Hu, J. Tong, D.T. Shi, G.H. Wu, K.T. Chen, M.A. George, W.E. Collins, A. Burger, R.B. James, C.M. Stahle and L.M. Bartlett, Hard X-Ray/Gamma-Ray and Neutron Optics, Sensors, and Applications, Vol. 2859, (Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 1996), p. 254.

    Google Scholar 

  40. H. Chen, J. Tong, Z. Hu, D.P. Shi, J.H. Wu, K.T. Chen, M.A. George, W. Collins, A. Burger, R.B. James, C.M. Stahle and L.M. Bartlett, J. Appl. Phys. 80 (6), 3509 (1996).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. H. Chen, D.T. Shi, B. Granderson, M.A. George, W.E. Collins, A. Burger and R.B. James, J. Vac. Sci. and Tech. A 15 (3), 1 (1997).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. A. Burger, H. Chen, J. Tong, D. Shi, M.A. George, K.T. Chen, W.E. Collins, R.B. James, C.M. Stahle and L.M. Bartlett, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 44 (3), 934 (1997).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. K.T. Chen, D.T. Shi, H. Chen, B. Granderson, M.A. George, W.E. Collins, A. Burger, R.B. James, C.M. Stahle and L.M. Bartlett, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 850 (1997).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. M.A. George, W.E. Collins, K.T. Chen, Z. Hu, S. Egarievwe and A. Burger, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3134 (1995).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. A. Burger, H. Chen, K.T. Chen, D. Shi, W.E. Collins and R.B. James, Semiconductors for Room-Temperature Radiation Detectors II, ed. R.B. James, T.E. Schlesinger, M. Cuzin, P. Siffert, M. Squillante and W. Dusi (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society, 1998), in press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. H. Chen, K. Chattopadhyay, K.T. Chen, A. Burger, M.A. George, J.J. Weimer, P.K. Nag, J.C. Gregory and R.B. James, unpublished.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

James, R.B., Brunett, B., Heffelfinger, J. et al. Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance. J. Electron. Mater. 27, 788–799 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-998-0055-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-998-0055-x

Key words

  • CZT
  • etching
  • gamma-ray response
  • internal electric fields
  • nuclear detectors
  • microstructural properties
  • photoluminescence
  • precipitates