Single crystals of l-alanine oxalic acid (LAO) were grown by adopting the slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction was used to evaluate the crystal structure of the as-grown LAO. The functional groups of LAO were identified by FT-IR spectroscopy. UV-Visible-NIR transmittance study was carried out to determine the bandgap energy. A fluorescence study was performed to obtain the emission spectrum of the LAO crystal. Vickers microhardness study was carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the LAO crystal. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis were also conducted to investigate the thermal properties of the LAO crystal. The efficiency of the title crystal’s second harmonic generation (SHG) was investigated. The electrical properties were estimated by impedance study. A laser damage threshold (LDT) study revealed that the LAO crystal has a high laser damage threshold.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Y. Mori, Y.K. Yap, T. Kamira, M. Yoshimura, and T. Sasaki, Recent development of nonlinear optical borate crystals for UV generation. Opt. Mater. 19, 1–5 (2002).
R.J. Mani, P. Selvarajan, H.A. Devadoss, and D. Shanthi, Second-order, third-order NLO and other properties of l-alanine crystals admixtured with perchloric acid (LAPA). Optik. 126, 213–218 (2015).
S. Li, K. Wu, G. Su, and Y. He, Nonlinear optical properties of some derivatives of stilbene and vinyl cyanide. Opt. Mater. 20, 295–299 (2002).
D. Shanthi, P. Selvarajan, K.K.H. Durga, and S.L.M. Ponmani, Nucleation kinetics, growth and studies of β-Alanine single crystals. Spectro Chem. Acta Part A 110, 1–6 (2013).
S. Manivannan and S. Dhanuskodi, Synthesis, crystal growth, structural and photosensitive properties of an organic NLO material. J. Cryst. Growth 262, 473–478 (2004).
J.U. Maheswari, C. Krishnan, S. Kalyanaraman, and P. Selvarajan, Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid. Physica B Condens. Matter 502, 32–38 (2016).
M.L. Caroline, R. Sankar, R.M. Indira, and S. Vasudevan, Growth, optical, thermal and dielectric studies of an amino acid organic nonlinear optical material: l-alanine. Mater. Chem. Phys. 114, 490–494 (2009).
A.M. Petrosyan, R.P. Sukiasyan, H.A. Karapetyan, S.S. Terzyan, and R.S. Feigelson, Growth and investigation of new nonlinear optical crystals of LAP family. J. Cryst. Growth 213, 103–111 (2000).
L. Mizoguchi, A.T. Varela, F.D. Nunes, V.S. Banat, F.F.A. Melo, J.M. Filho, and S.C. Zulia, Optical properties of l-alanine organic crystals. Opt. Mater. 6, 147–152 (1996).
P. Jayaprakash, P. Sangeetha, C.R.T. Kumari, and M.L. Caroline, Investigation on the growth, spectral, lifetime, mechanical analysis and third-order nonlinear optical studies of l-methionine admixtured d-mandelic acid single crystal: a promising material for nonlinear optical applications. Physica B Condens. Matter 518, 1–12 (2017).
J.D. Bernal, The crystal structure of the natural amino acids and related compounds. Z. Crystallography. 78, 363–369 (1931).
A.S.J.L. Rose, P. Selvarajan, and S. Perumal, Studies on growth and characterization of an NLO crystal: l-alanine hydrogen chloride (LAHC). Mater. Chem. Phys. 130, 950–955 (2011).
D. Haleshappa, B. Raghavendra, A. Jayarama, K.Q. Ching, C.K. Huey, and S.P. Parutagouda, Structural, photoluminescence, physical, optical limiting, and hirshfeld surface analysis of polymorphic chlorophenyl organic chalcone derivative for optoelectronic applications. J. Mol. Struct. 1232, 130053 (2021).
C.-I. Urit, P. Ramasamy, and P. Manyum, Comparative study on l-alaninium maleate single crystal grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique. J. Crystal Growth 312, 2369–2375 (2010).
D. Balasubramanian, R. Jayavel, and P. Murgakoothan, Studies on the growth aspects of organic l-alanine maleate: a promising nonlinear optical crystal. Nat. Sci. 1, 216–221 (2009).
C.R. Raja and A.A. Joseph, Crystal growth and characterization of new nonlinear optical single crystals of l-alaninium fumarate. Mater. Lett. 63, 2507–2509 (2009).
C.J. Raj, S. Dinakaran, S. Krishnan, B.M. Boaz, R. Robert, and S.J. Das, Studies on optical, mechanical and transport properties of NLO active l-alanine formate single crystal grown by modified Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method. Opt. Commun. 281, 2285 (2008).
A. Wojciechowski, K. Ozga, A.H. Reshak, R. Miedzinski, I.V. Kityk, J. Berdowski, and Z. Tylczyński, Photoinduced effects in l-alanine crystals. Mater. Lett. 64, 1957–1959 (2010).
A.H. Reshak, N.M. Abbass, J. Bila, M.R. Johan, and I. Kityk, Noncentrosymmetric sulfide oxide MZnSO (M = Ca or Sr) with strongly polar structure as novel nonlinear crystals. J. Phys. Chem. C 123, 27172–27180 (2019).
A.H. Reshak, Spin-polarized second harmonic generation from the antiferromagnetic CaCoSO single crystal. Sci. Rep. 13, 46415 (2017).
A.H. Reshak and S. Auluck, The influence of oxygen vacancies on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Pb7O(OH)3(CO3)3(BO3). RSC Adv. 7, 14752 (2017).
A.H. Reshak, Novel borate CsZn2B3O7 single crystal with large efficient second harmonic generation in deep-ultraviolet spectral range. J. Alloy. Compd. 722, 438–444 (2017).
A.H. Reshak and S. Auluck, Two haloid borate crystals with large nonlinear optical response. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 18416 (2017).
B.S. Naouel, O. Tarik, B. Michael, H.R. Ali, and A. Sihem, Untangling electronic, optical and bonding properties of hexagonal bismuth borate SrBi2B2O7 crystal for ultraviolet opto-electronic applications: an ab initio study. J. Alloys Comp. 803, 1127–1135 (2019).
R. Mahiaoui, T. Ouahrani, A. Chikhaoui, A. Morales-García, and A.H. Reshak, Electronic, bonding, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of Na2MGe2Q6 (M=Cd, Zn, Hg; Q=S, Se), Na2ZnSi2S6, and Na2ZnSn2S6 two metal-mixed chalcogenide compounds: insights from an ab initio study. J. Phys. Chem. Solids 119, 220–227 (2018).
A.H. Reshak, Novel ternary semiconductor CdLa2X4 (X=S or Se) single crystal with efficient second harmonic generation in the visible spectral range. J. Alloy. Compd. 728, 241–252 (2017).
A.H. Reshak, Lithium borate Li3B5O8(OH)2 with large second harmonic generation and high damage threshold in the deep-ultraviolet spectral range. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 30703–30714 (2017).
V. Kathiravan, G.S. Kumar, S. Pari, and P. Selvarajan, Influence of dye doping on the structural, spectral, optical, thermal, electrical, mechanical and nonlinear optical properties of L-histidine hydrofluoride dihydrate crystals. J. Mol. Struct. 1223, 128958 (2021).
S. Dhanuskodi, K. Vasantha, and P.A.A. Mary, Structural and thermal characterization of a semiorganic NLO material: l-alanine cadmium chloride. Spectrochimica Acta Part A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 66, 637–642 (2007).
M. Nageshwari, P. Jayaprakash, C.R.T. Kumari, G. Vinitha, and M.L. Caroline, Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: l-valinium l-valine chloride. Physica B Condens. Matter. 511, 1–9 (2017).
D. Shanthi, P. Selvarajan, and S. Perumal, Growth, linear optical constants and photoluminescence characteristics of beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) crystals. Optik 127, 3192–3199 (2016).
M. Nageshwari, C.R.T. Kumari, P. Sangeetha, G. Vinitha, and M.L. Caroline, Third order nonlinear optical, spectral, dielectric, laser damage threshold, and photoluminescence characteristics of an efficacious semiorganic acentric crystal: l-Ornithine monohydrochloride. Chin. J. Phys. 56, 502–519 (2018).
F. Hammer, Inorganic Chemistry (New Delhi: Sarup Book Publishers Private Ltd., 2009).
M.P. Mohamed, S. Sudha, P. Jayaprakash, G. Vinitha, M. Nageshwari, P. Sangeetha, C.R.T. Kumari, and M.L. Caroline, Growth and characterization of l-histidinium fumarate fumaric acid monohydrate single crystal: a promising second and third-order nonlinear optical material. Chin. J. Phys. 60, 581–597 (2019).
S.P. Rathee and D.S. Ahlawat, Spectroscopic and thermo- electrical investigation of single crystals of l-Ornithine monohydrochloride grown by SEST. Optik 136, 249–258 (2017).
K. Meera, R. Muralidharan, A.K. Tripathi, R. Dhanasekaran, and P. Ramasamy, Growth of thiourea-doped TGS crystals and their characterisation. J. Cryst. Growth 260, 414–421 (2004).
K. Pichan, S.P. Muthu, and R. Perumalsamy, Crystal growth and characterization of third-order nonlinear optical piperazinium bis(4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate) (P4HBS) single crystal. J. Crystal Growth 473, 39–54 (2017).
Y. Le Fur, R. Masse, M.Z. Cherkaoui, and J.F. Nicoud, Zeitschrift fur Crystallogr. 210, 856–860 (1995).
M. Ram, synthesis and electrical properties of (LiCo3/5Fe1/5Mn1/5)VO4 ceramics. Solid Stated Sci. 12, 350–354 (2010).
E.A. Hurtado-Aviles, M. Trejo-Valdez, J.A. Torres, C.J. Ramos-Torres, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, and C. Torres-Torres, Photo-induced structured waves by nanostructured topological insulator Bi2Te3. Opt. Laser Technol. 140, 107015 (2021).
S. Sahoo, R.N.P. Choudhary, and B.K. Mathur, Structural, ferroelectric and Impedance spectroscopy properties of Y3+ modified Pb (Fe0.5 Nb0.5)O3 ceramics. Phys. B 406, 1660–1664 (2011).
K. Ramachandran, A. Raja, V. Mohankumar, M.S. Pandian, and P. Ramasamy, Growth and characterization of 4-methyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid (4M3N) single crystal by using vertical transparent Bridgman-Stockbarger method for NLO applications. Physica B Condens. Matter 562, 82–93 (2019).
P. Vivek and P. Murugakoothan, Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new organic NLO l-asparaginium l-tartarate (AST) single crystal. Optik Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 124, 3510–3513 (2013).
The authors wish to express their gratitude to several research centres, including the SAIF-IIT, Madras, the ACIC-St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli, the NCIF-National College, Tiruchirappalli, and Alagappa University, Karaikudi, for their contributions. The authors would like to express their gratitude to the APRC – Sacred Heart College, Tirupattur, the CIF – Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, and the IISC – Bangalore for their full-fledged assistance in carrying out the characterization measures for this research project.
There is no funding involved with the current study.
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest in the work as declared by the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Thangavel, S., Kathiravan, V., Ashok Kumar, R. et al. Crystal Growth of l-Alanine Oxalic Acid Crystal and its Spectral, NLO, Mechanical, Thermal, and Impedance Properties. J. Electron. Mater. 51, 3068–3077 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-022-09546-2