Skip to main content
Log in

Growth and Characterization of Arsenic-Doped CdTe1−xSex Single Crystals Grown by the Cd-Solvent Traveling Heater Method

  • Topical Collection: U.S. Workshop on Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials 2019
  • Published:
Journal of Electronic Materials Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The photovoltaic performance of CdTe solar cells is mainly limited by low doping and short minority carrier lifetime. Group-V element doping and Se-alloying have a significant impact on tuning these fundamental CdTe properties. In this paper, we report the growth of p-type As-doped, Cd-rich CdTe1−xSex single crystals using metallic Cd as the solvent in the traveling-heater method. The structural and electrical properties of CdTe1−xSex are examined for different Se concentrations. CdTe1−xSex single crystals (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) with zincblende structure indicate homogeneous composition. The 1017 cm−3 As-doping activation efficiency can be maintained at close to 50% for x ≤ 0.2. Se alloying leads to bulk minority carrier lifetime exceeding 30 ns for samples doped near 1017 cm−3. These results help us to overcome the current roadblocks in device performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. M. A. Green, E. D. Dunlop, D. H. Levi, J. H-Ebinger, M. Yoshita, and A. W. Y. H-Baillie, Prog. Photovoltaics 27, 565 (2019)

  2. J.M. Burst, J.N. Duenow, D.S. Albin, E. Colegrove, M.O. Reese, J.A. Aguiar, C.S. Jiang, M.K. Patel, M.M. Al-Jassim, D. Kuciauskas, S. Swain, T. Ablekim, K.G. Lynn, and W.K. Metzger, Nat. Energy 1, 16015 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. J.H. Yang, W.J. Yin, J.S. Park, J. Ma, and S.H. Wei, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31, 083002 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  4. J.H. Yang, W.J. Yin, J.S. Park, J. Burst, W.K. Metzger, T. Gessert, T. Barnes, and S.H. Wei, J. Appl. Phys. 118, 025102 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  5. T. Ablekim, S.K. Swain, W.J. Yin, K. Zaunbrecher, J. Burst, T.M. Barnes, D. Kuciauskas, S.H. Wei, and K.G. Lynn, Sci. Rep. 7, 4563 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  6. D. Krasikov and I. Sankin, Phys. Rev. Mater. 2, 103803 (2018).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. W.K. Metzger, S. Grover, D. Lu, E. Colegrove, J. Moseley, C.L. Perkins, X. Li, R. Mallick, W. Zhang, R. Malik, J. Kephart, C.-S. Jiang, D. Kuciauskas, D.S. Albin, M.M. Al-Jassim, G. Xiong, and M. Gloeckler, Nat. Energy 4, 837 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. A. Nagaoka, D. Kuciauskas, and M.A. Scarpulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 232103 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  9. A. Nagaoka, D. Kuciauskas, J. McCoy, and M.A. Scarpulla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 192101 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  10. A. Nagaoka, K. Nishioka, K. Yoshino, D. Kuciauskas, and M.A. Scarpulla, Appl. Phys. Exp. 12, 081002 (2019).

    Google Scholar 

  11. A. Chirilă, S. Buecheler, F. Pianezzi, P. Bloesch, C. Gretener, A.R. Uhl, C. Fella, L. Kranz, J. Perrenoud, S. Seyrling, R. Verma, S. Nishiwaki, Y.E. Romanyuk, G. Bilger, and A.N. Tiwari, Nat. Mater. 10, 857 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  12. S.H. Wei and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B 43, 1662 (1991).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Semiconductors: Basic Data (Springer, Berlin, 1982), 2nd ed

  14. S.H. Wei, S.B. Zhang, and A. Zunger, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1304 (2000).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. B.E. McCandless, G.M. Hanket, D.G. Jensen, and R.W. Birkmire, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 20, 1462 (2002).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. N.R. Paudel and Y. Yan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 183510 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  17. J.D. Poplawsky, W. Guo, N. Paudel, A. Ng, K. More, D. Leonard, and Y. Yan, Nat. Commun. 7, 12537 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. T.A.M. Fiducia, B.G. Mendis, K. Li, C.R.M. Grovenor, A.H. Munshi, K. Barth, W.S. Sampath, L.D. Wright, A. Abbas, J.W. Bowers, and J.M. Walls, Nat. Energy 4, 504 (2019).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. A. Nagaoka, K.B. Han, S. Misra, T. Wilenski, T.D. Sparks, and M.A. Scarpulla, J. Crystal Growth 467, 6 (2017).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. D. Kuciauskas, A. Kanevce, J.M. Burst, J.N. Duenow, R. Dhere, D.S. Albin, D.H. Levi, and R.K. Ahrenkiel, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 1319 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  21. A.J. Strauss and J. Steininger, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 1420 (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. T.A. Gessert, S.H. Wei, J. Ma, D.S. Albin, R.G. Dhere, J.N. Duenow, D. Kuciauskas, A. Kanevce, T.M. Barnes, J.M. Burst, W.L. Rance, M.O. Reese, and H.R. Moutinho, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 149 (2013).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. J.H. Yang, W.J. Yin, J.S. Park, W. Metzger, and S.H. Wei, J. Appl. Phys. 119, 045104 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  24. D. Kuciauskas, J.M. Kephart, J. Moseley, W.K. Metzger, W.S. Sampath, and P. Dippo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 263901 (2018).

    Google Scholar 

  25. C.H. Swartz, M. Edirisooriya, E.G. LeBlanc, O.C. Noriega, P.A.R.D. Jayathilaka, O.S. Ogedengbe, B.L. Hancock, M. Holtz, T.H. Myers, and K.N. Zaunbrecher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 222107 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  26. J.H. Yang, L. Shi, L.W. Wang, and S.-H. Wei, Sci. Rep. 6, 21712 (2016).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. D. Kuciauskas, P. Dippo, A. Kanevce, Z. Zhao, L. Cheng, A. Los, M. Gloeckler, and W.K. Metzger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 243906 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

A.N. acknowledges support from the JSPS for a Research Fellow Grant-in-Aid. At NREL, this work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) under Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) Agreement No. 34350 operated by Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DEAC36- 08GO28308. The views expressed in the article do not necessarily represent the views of the DOE or the U.S. Government.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Akira Nagaoka.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nagaoka, A., Nishioka, K., Yoshino, K. et al. Growth and Characterization of Arsenic-Doped CdTe1−xSex Single Crystals Grown by the Cd-Solvent Traveling Heater Method. J. Electron. Mater. 49, 6971–6976 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-020-08343-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-020-08343-z

Keywords

Navigation