Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 47, Issue 7, pp 4165–4169 | Cite as

Mechanical Reliability of the Epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi Solder Joints with Different Surface Finishes Under Thermal Shock

  • Yong-Gue Sung
  • Woo-Ram Myung
  • Haksan Jeong
  • Min-Kwan Ko
  • Jeonghoon Moon
  • Seung-Boo Jung


The effect of thermal shock on the mechanical reliability of epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi composite (epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi) solder joints was investigated with different surface-finished substrates. Sn-58wt.%Bi-based solder has been considered as a promising candidate for low-temperature solder among various lead-free solders. However, Sn-58wt.%Bi solder joints can be easily broken under impact conditions such as mechanical shock, drop tests, and bending tests because of their poor ductility. Therefore, previous researchers have tried to improve the mechanical property of Sn-58wt.%Bi solder by additional elements and mixtures of metal powder and epoxy resin. Epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder paste was fabricated by mixing epoxy resin and Sn-58wt.%Bi solder powder to enhance the mechanical reliability of Sn-58wt.%Bi solder joints. The epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder paste was screen-printed onto various printed circuit board surfaces finished with organic solder preservatives (OSP), electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG). The test components were prepared by a reflow process at a peak temperature of 190°C. The thermal shock test was carried out under the temperature range of − 40 to 125°C to evaluate the reliability of Sn-58wt.%Bi and epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder joints. The OSP-finished sample showed a relatively higher mechanical property than those of ENIG and ENEPIG after thermal shock. The average number of cycles for epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder with the OSP surface finish were 6 times higher than that for Sn-58wt.%Bi solder with the same finish. The microstructures of the solder joints were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and the composition of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was analyzed by using energy dispersive spectrometry. Cu6Sn5 IMC was formed by the reaction between Sn-58wt.%Bi solder and a OSP surface-finished Cu after the reflow process. Ni3Sn4 IMC and (Ni, Pd)3Sn4 IMC were formed at the solder joints between the ENIG and solder, and between ENEPIG surface finish and solders, respectively.


Sn-58wt.%Bi solder epoxy solder thermal shock test reliability surface finish 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03035587). This work was supported by “Human Resources Program in Energy Technology” of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20174030201800).


  1. 1.
    X. Hu, Y. Li, and Z. Min, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24, 2027 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.S. Suh, C.J. Park, and H.S. Kwon, Mater. Chem. Phys. 110, 95 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L.T. Chen and C.M. Chen, J. Mater. Res. 21, 962 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    X. Hu, X. Yu, Y. Li, Q. Huang, Y. Liu, and Z. Min, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 22, 57 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H.W. Miao, J.G. Duh, and B.S. Chiou, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 11, 609 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Hua, Z. Mei, and J. Glazer, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (1998), p. 277.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z, Mei, F. Hua, and J. Glazer, in IEEE/CPMT international Electronics Manufacturing Technology Symposium (1997), p. 463.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y.D. Tsai, C.C. Hu, and C.C. Lin, Electrochim. Acta 53, 2040 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Fukuda, K. Imayoshi, and Y. Matsumoto, Electrochim. Acta 47, 459 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.Z. Liu and W. Zhang, J. Mater. Sci. 44, 149 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.M. Kumar, V. Kripesh, and A.A.O. Tay, J. Alloy. Compd. 455, 148 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Yang, W. Zhou, Y. Liang, W. Cui, and P. Wu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A-Struct 642, 7 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Yang, W. Zhou, X. Li, Y. Ma, Y. Liang, W. Cui, and P. Wu, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27, 12264 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Kim, W.R. Myung, and S.B. Jung, J. Microelectron. Packag. Soc. 21, 1 (2014).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W.R. Myung, Y. Kim, and S.B. Jung, J. Alloy. Compd. 615, S411 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W.R. Myung, Y. Kim, K.Y. Kim, and S.B. Jung, J. Electron. Mater. 45, 3651 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Yao and J.K. Shang, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 26, 2677 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y.C. Chan, P.L. Tu, C.W. Tang, K.C. Hung, and J.K.L. Lai, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 24, 25 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.W. Yoon, C.B. Lee, and S.B. Jung, Mater. Trans. 43, 1821 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    X. Zhang, V. Kripesh, T. Chai, T.C. Tan, D. Pinjala, and M.K. Iyer, in Proceedings of 7th Electronic Packaging Technology Conference (Singapore, Singapore, December 7–9, 2005), p. 158.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Abtew and G. Selvadurary, Mater. Sci. Eng. 27, 95 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y.H. Ko, M.S. Kim, J. Bang, T.S. Kim, and C.W. Lee, J. Electron. Met. 44, 2458 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong-Gue Sung
    • 1
  • Woo-Ram Myung
    • 2
  • Haksan Jeong
    • 1
  • Min-Kwan Ko
    • 1
  • Jeonghoon Moon
    • 3
  • Seung-Boo Jung
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Advanced Materials Science and EngineeringSungkyunkwan UniversitySuwonSouth Korea
  2. 2.SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT)Sungkyunkwan UniversitySuwonSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSuwon Science CollegeHwaseong-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations