Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 47, Issue 9, pp 4987–4992 | Cite as

Optical Characterizations of VCSEL for Emission at 850 nm with Al Oxide Confinement Layers

  • Merwan Mokhtari
  • Philippe Pagnod-Rossiaux
  • Francois Laruelle
  • Jean-Pierre Landesman
  • Alain Moreac
  • Christophe Levallois
  • Daniel T. Cassidy
Topical Collection: 17th Conference on Defects (DRIP XVII)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. 17th Conference on Defects-Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP XVII)


In-plane micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) and micro-reflectivity measurements have been performed at room temperature by optical excitation perpendicular to the surface of two different structures: a complete vertical surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structure and a VCSEL without the upper p-type distributed Bragg reflector (P-DBR). The two structures were both laterally oxidized and measurements were made on the top of oxidized and unoxidized regions. We show that, since the photoluminescence (PL) spectra consist of the cumulative effect of InGaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum wells (MQWs) luminescence and interferences in the DBR, the presence or not of the P-DBR and oxide layers can significantly modify the spectrum. μ-PL mapping performed on full VCSEL structures clearly shows oxidized and unoxidized regions that are not resolved with visible light optical microscopy. Finally, preliminary measurements of the degree of polarization (DOP) of the PL have been made on a complete VCSEL structure before and after an oxidation process. We obtain an image of DOP measured by polarization-resolved μ-PL. These measurements allow us to evaluate the main components of strain.


VCSEL reliability quantum well oxide aperture residual stress 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S.A. Blokhin, J.A. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N.N. Ledentsov, M.V. Maximov, A.M. Nadtochiy, V.A. Schchukin, and D. Bimberg, Electron. Lett. 45, 501–503 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    T.J.C. Hosea, Phys. Scr. T. 114, 227 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.E. Sale, T.J.C. Hosea, and P.J.S. Thomas, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1328–1330 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.L. Huffaker, D.G. Deppe, K. Kumar, and T.J. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 97 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K.D. Choquette, K.M. Geib, C.I.H. Ashby, R.D. Twesten, O. Blum, H.Q. Hou, D.M. Follstaedt, B.E. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 3, 916–926 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K.D. Choquette, K.M. Geib, H.C. Chui, B.E. Hammons, H.Q. Hou, T.J. Drummond, and R. Hull, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Helms, I. Aeby, W. Luo, R.W. Herrick, and A. Yuen, Proc. SPIE 5364, 183–189 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.W. Herrick, A. Dafinca, P. Farthouat, A.A. Grillo, S.J. McMahon, and A.R. Weidberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49, 1045–1052 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.R. Keller, A. Roshko, R.H. Geiss, K.A. Bertness, and T.P. Quinn, Microelectron. Eng. 75, 96–102 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Chouchane, G. Almuneau, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, A. Monmayrant, A. Arnoult, G. Lacoste, and C. Fontaine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261921 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.P. Landesman, A. Fiore, J. Nagle, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and P. Puech, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2520–2522 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Lisak, D.T. Cassidy, A.H. Moore, and I.E.E.E.T. Compon, Pack. T. 24, 92–98 (2001).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.T. Cassidy, S.K.K. Lam, B. Lakshmi, and D.M. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 43, 1811 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Gramlich, J. Sebastian, M. Weyers, and R. Hey, Phys. Status Solidi A 152, 293–301 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. T. Schaafsma, D. H. Christensen, R. K. Hickernell, and J. G. Pellegrino, in MRS Conference Proceedings (1993), 326.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.3SP Technologies S.A.SNozay CedexFrance
  2. 2.University Rennes, CNRS, IPR (Institut de Physique de Rennes) - UMR 6251RennesFrance
  3. 3.University Rennes, INSA Rennes, CNRS, FOTON - UMR 6082RennesFrance
  4. 4.Department of Engineering PhysicsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations