Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 2356–2365 | Cite as

Enhanced Flexible Thermoelectric Generators Based on Oxide–Metal Composite Materials

  • Benjamin GeppertEmail author
  • Artur Brittner
  • Lailah Helmich
  • Michael Bittner
  • Armin Feldhoff


The thermoelectric performance of flexible thermoelectric generator stripes was investigated in terms of different material combinations. The thermoelectric generators were constructed using Cu-Ni-Mn alloy as n-type legs while varying the p-type leg material by including a metallic silver phase and an oxidic copper phase. For the synthesis of \(\mathrm {Ca_3Co_4O_{9}}\)/CuO/Ag ceramic-based composite materials, silver and the copper were added to the sol–gel batches in the form of nitrates. For both additional elements, the isothermal specific electronic conductivity increases with increasing amounts of Ag and CuO in the samples. The amounts for Ag and Cu were 0 mol.%, 2 mol.%, 5 mol.%, 10 mol.%, and 20 mol.%. The phases were confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, secondary electron microscopy including energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were processed in the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope. For each p-type material, the data for the thermoelectric parameters, isothermal specific electronic conductivity \(\sigma\) and the Seebeck coefficient \(\alpha\), were determined. The p-type material with a content of 5 mol.% Ag and Cu exhibited a local maximum of the power factor and led to the generator with the highest electric power output \(P_\mathrm{el}\).


Flexible thermoelectric generators composite materials energy conversion electric power output conversion efficiency 


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Geppert
    • 1
    Email author
  • Artur Brittner
    • 1
  • Lailah Helmich
    • 1
  • Michael Bittner
    • 1
  • Armin Feldhoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physical Chemistry and ElectrochemistryLeibniz UniversitätHannoverGermany

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