Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 45, Issue 10, pp 4813–4822 | Cite as

Interfacial Characterizations of a Nickel-Phosphorus Layer Electrolessly Deposited on a Silane Compound-Modified Silicon Wafer Under Thermal Annealing

  • Kuei-Chang Lai
  • Pei-Yu Wu
  • Chih-Ming ChenEmail author
  • Tzu-Chien WeiEmail author
  • Chung-Han Wu
  • Shien-Ping Feng


Front-side metallization of a Si wafer was carried out using electroless deposition of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) catalyzed by polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped palladium nanoclusters (PVP-nPd). A 3-[2-(2-Aminoethylamino)ethylamino] propyl-trimethoxysilane (ETAS) layer was covalently bonded on the Si surface as bridge linker to the Pd cores of PVP-nPd clusters for improving adhesion between the Ni-P layer and the Si surface. To investigate the effects of an interfacial ETAS layer on the Ni silicide formation at the Ni-P/Si contact, the Ni-P-coated Si samples were thermally annealed via rapid thermal annealing (RTA) from 500°C to 900°C for 2 min. To compare with the ETAS sample, the sputtered Ni layer on Si and electroless Ni-P layer on ion-Pd-catalyzed Si (both are standard processes) were also investigated. The microstructural characterizations for the Ni-P or Ni layer deposited on the Si wafer were performed using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that the ETAS layer acted as a barrier to slow the atomic diffusion of Ni toward the Si side. Although the formation of Ni silicides required a higher annealing temperature, the adhesion strength and contact resistivity measurements of annealed Ni-P/Si contacts showed satisfactory results, which were essential to the device performance and reliability during thermal annealing.


Annealing diffusion microstructures electroless nickel 


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© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Chung Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Tsing-Hua UniversityHsin-ChuTaiwan
  3. 3.R&D DepartmentGintech Energy CorporationMiaoliTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of Hong KongHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

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