Reactive magnetron sputtering has been used for deposition of yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinium-doped CeO2 (CGO) layers on NiO-YSZ commercial anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. To increase the deposition rate and improve the quality of the sputtered thin oxide films, asymmetric bipolar pulse magnetron sputtering was applied. Three types of anode-supported cells, with single-layer YSZ or CGO and YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte, were prepared and investigated. Optimal thickness of oxide layers was determined experimentally. Based on the electrochemical characteristics of the cells, it is shown that, at lower operating temperatures of 650°C to 700°C, the cells with single-layer CGO electrolyte are most effective. The power density of these fuel cells exceeds that of the cell based on YSZ single-layer electrolyte at the same temperature. Power densities of 650 mW cm−2 and 500 mW cm−2 at 700°C were demonstrated by cells with single-layer YSZ and CGO electrolyte, respectively. Significantly enhanced maximum power density was achieved in a bilayer-electrolyte single cell, as compared with cells with a single electrolyte layer. Maximum power density of 1.25 W cm−2 at 800°C and 1 W cm−2 at 750°C under voltage of 0.7 V were achieved for the YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte cell with YSZ and CGO thickness of about 4 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. This signifies that the YSZ thin film serves as a blocking layer to prevent electrical current leakage in the CGO layer, leading to the overall enhanced performance. This performance is comparable to the state of the art for cells based on YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 14-29-04089) for financial support. Part of this work was funded by subsidies in the framework of the program to improve the competitiveness of TPU and Project VIU_NU_№187. Part of this work was carried out within the State assignment of the Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS.
J. Garcia-Barriocanal, A. Rivera-Calzada, M. Varela, Z. Sefrioui, E. Iborra, C. Leon, S.J. Pennycook, and J. Santamaria, Science 321, 676 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar