Journal of Electronic Materials

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 329–338 | Cite as

Thermal Aspects of Pyroelectric Ceramic Functional Material for Infrared Image Sensing

  • M.A. MatinEmail author
  • T. Sugai
  • N. Kawazu
  • D. Akai
  • K. Sawada
  • M. Ishida


In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and thermal simulation of smart 1024-element (32 × 32 pixels), monolithic, pyroelectric, functional electro-ceramic material-based infrared (IR) image sensors. A sol–gel-deposited PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 (PZT) thin film was used as a pyroelectric material for the detector. We tailored the geometries and dimensions of the devices in designing the the image sensors with a smart material. The influence of a thermal isolator has been shown to significantly reduce heat loss to the device structure and environment. Introducing circular pixels instead of square ones has confirmed the ability to obtain an optimal design with a functional material for use in a smart image sensor, resulting in a maximal temperature change of 4 mK at a response frequency of 10 Hz.


Functional electro-ceramic material pyroelectric monolithic epitaxial thermal modeling micromachining thin film 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was financially supported by the Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, Frontiers of Intelligent Sensing of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education, Japan.


  1. 1.
    J.J. Ho, Y.K. Fang, K.H. Wu, W.T. Hsieh, C.W. Chu, C.R. Huang, M.S. Ju, and C.P. Chang, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 19, 189 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Edo, H. Takao, K. Sawada, and M. Ishida, IEICE Tech. Paper 105, 7 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Takao, R. Asaoka, K. Sawada, S. Kawahito, and M. Ishida, IEICE Tech. Paper 123, 422 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.G. Liu, J.S. Ko, and W. Zhu, Thin Solid Films 371, 254 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Dereniak and D. Crowe, Optical Radiation Detectors (1984), p. 22Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.S. Suen, D.T.W. Lin, Y.C. Hu, and J.C. Hsieh, Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (Hong Kong, 2010), 1770Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.S. Ko, W. Liu, W.Z. Zhu, and B.M. Kwak, Solid-State Electron. 46, 1155 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.W. Whatmore, Ferroelectrics 118, 241 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Muralt, Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1339 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B.L. Sidney, Phys. Today 5, 31 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Ishida, I. Katakabe, and T. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1326 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. Fujitsuka, J. Sakata, Y. Miyachi, K. Mizuno, K. Ohtsuka, Y. Taga, and O. Tabata, Sens. Actuators A 66, 237 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Rogalski, Prog. Quantum Electron. 27, 59 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Dong, R. Yue, and L. Liu, Sens. Actuators A 105, 286 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Eminoglu, D. Tezcana, M. Tanrikulu, and T. Akin, Sens. Actuators A 109, 102 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Schaufelbuehl, U. Munch, C. Menolfi, O. Branda, O. Paul, Q. Huang, and H. Baltes, Transducers Tech. Dig. 3D906513, 200 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A.D. Oliver and K.D. Wise, Sens. Actuators A 73, 222 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Calaza, N. Viarani, G. Pedretti, M. Gottardi, A. Simoni, V. Zanini, and M. Zen, Sens. Actuators A 132, 129 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Sawada, M. Ishida, N. Ohtakdea, and T. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1672 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Kawazu, K. Kikuchi, D. Akai, K. Sawada, and M. Ishida, 17th International IEEE Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectr. (Santa Fe, NM, 2008), p. 15Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. Kotani, T. Nakanishi, and K. Nomura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6297 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Kohli, A. Seifert, B. Willing, K. Brooks, and P. Muralt, Integr. Ferroelectr. 17, 359 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Kohli, C. Wüthrich, K.G. Brooks, B. Willing, M. Forster, P. Muralt, N. Setter, and P. Ryser, Sens. Actuators A 60, 147 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Kohli, A. Seifert, and P. Muralt, Integr. Ferroelectr. 22, 453 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Kawahito, K. Sawada, K. Tada, M. Ishida, and Y. Tadokoro, Transaction on the Institute of Electrical Engineering, Japan, vol. 122 (2002), p. 166Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. Grum and R.J. Becherer, Optical Radiation Measurements, vol. 1 (Academic Press, New York, 1979), p. 90Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    L.I. John and L.V. John, A Heat Transfer Textbook, 3rd edn. (Phlogiston Press, Massachusetts, 2003), p. 56Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Cengel and A. Ghajar, Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications, 4th edn. (McGraw-Hill, Higher Education, 2011), p. 45Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G.D. Cicco, B. Morten, D. Dalmonego, and M. Prudenziati, Sens. Actuators, A 76, 409 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Ueha and Y. Tomikawa, Ultrasonic Motors: Theory and Applications, vol. 29 (Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993), p. 120Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.A. Matin, K. Oishi, A. Katsuta, D. Akai, K. Sawada, and M. Ishida, J. Electron. Mater. 44, 2544 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marc User Guide, MSC Software Corporation (4675 MacArthur Court, Newport Beach, California 92660, USA)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
    K. Visvanathan and Y.B. Gianchandani, 15th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, (Denver, USA, 2009), p. 9Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Lang, W. Zhu, and Z. Ye, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 1 (2012)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    E. Hong, S. Krishnaswamy, C. Freidhoff, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 687, 1 (2002)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Duc-Nguyen, M. Dekkers, H.N. Vu, and G. Rijnders, Sens. Actuators A 199, 98 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    J. Arblaster, Platinum Met. Rev. 38, 119 (1994)Google Scholar
  40. 40.

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.A. Matin
    • 1
    Email author
  • T. Sugai
    • 2
  • N. Kawazu
    • 2
  • D. Akai
    • 2
  • K. Sawada
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. Ishida
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Glass and Ceramic EngineeringBangladesh University of Eng. and TechDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Electrical and Electronic Information EngineeringToyohashi University of TechnologyToyohashiJapan
  3. 3.Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS)Toyohashi University of TechnologyToyohashiJapan

Personalised recommendations