High-Performance M/LWIR Dual-Band HgCdTe/Si Focal-Plane Arrays

Abstract

Mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) grown on large-area silicon (Si) substrates allows for larger array formats and potentially reduced focal-plane array (FPA) cost compared with smaller, more expensive cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) substrates. In this work, the use of HgCdTe/Si for mid- wavelength/long-wavelength infrared (M/LWIR) dual-band FPAs is evaluated for tactical applications. A number of M/LWIR dual-band HgCdTe triple-layer n-P-n heterojunction device structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on 100-mm (211)Si substrates. Wafers exhibited low macrodefect densities (< 300 cm−2). Die from these wafers were mated to dual-band readout integrated circuits to produce FPAs. The measured 81-K cutoff wavelengths were 5.1 μm for band 1 (MWIR) and 9.6 μm for band 2 (LWIR). The FPAs exhibited high pixel operability in each band with noise-equivalent differential temperature operability of 99.98% for the MWIR band and 98.7% for the LWIR band at 81 K. The results from this series are compared with M/LWIR FPAs from 2009 to address possible methods for improvement. Results obtained in this work suggest that MBE growth defects and dislocations present in devices are not the limiting factor for detector operability, with regards to infrared detection for tactical applications.

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Correspondence to M. F. Vilela.

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Vilela, M.F., Olsson, K.R., Norton, E.M. et al. High-Performance M/LWIR Dual-Band HgCdTe/Si Focal-Plane Arrays. Journal of Elec Materi 42, 3231–3238 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-013-2798-2

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Keywords

  • HgCdTe
  • dual band
  • FPAs
  • Si substrates
  • infrared detectors
  • molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE)