The Distribution Tail of LWIR HgCdTe-on-Si FPAs: a Hypothetical Physical Mechanism

A model is proposed to explain disparities found in the operability values and histograms for long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe focal-plane arrays fabricated on Si substrates compared with those fabricated on CdZnTe. The starting point for the model is the close agreement between the aerial density of discrete species (particles, contamination spots, crystalline defects on Si surface) in various interfaces in the HgCdTe/CdTe/Si structure and the density of failed pixels in the array. The density of discrete species is acquired by applying a newly developed variation of the secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth-profiling technique to samples that have been deuterated to enhance detection. A mechanism of selective activation of threading dislocations in a HgCdTe layer on Si is proposed to link discrete species with failed detector pixels.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    J.D. Benson, P.J. Smith, R.N. Jacobs, J.K. Markunas, M. Jaime-Vasquez, L.A. Almeida, A.J. Stoltz, L.O. Bubulac, M. Groenert, P.S. Wijewarnasuriya, G. Brill, Y. Chen, and U. Lee, J. Electron. Mater. 38, 1771 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    R. Hellmer, L. Bubulac, J.H. Dinan, L. Wang, W. Zhao, M. Carmody, H.O. Sankur, and D. Edwall, J. Electron. Mater. 35, 1465 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    T.D. Golding, R. Hellmer, J.H. Dinan, L. Bubulac, M. Carmody, L. Wang, and A. Wang, US Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II–VI Materials, Newport Beach, CA, Oct 10–12 (2006).

  4. 4.

    L.O. Bubulac, J.D. Benson, A. Wang, L. Wang, R.N. Jacobs, R. Hellmer, T. Golding, J.H. Dinan, M. Carmody, A.J. Stoltz, M. Jaime-Vasquez, and L.A. Almeida, App. Phys. Lett. (To be published).

  5. 5.

    E.A. Patten, P.M. Goetz, M.F. Vilela, K. Olsson, D.D. Lofgreen, J.G. Vodicka, and S.M. Johnson (To be published).

  6. 6.

    L.O. Bubulac and G.E. Lux, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy SIMS VIII (New York: Wiley, 1992), p. 371.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    J. Sheng, L. Wang, G.E. Lux, and Y. Gao, J. Electron. Mater. 26, 588 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    M. Jaime-Vasquez, R.N. Jacobs, J.D. Benson, A.J. Stoltz, L.A. Almeida, and L.O. Bubulac, J. Electron. Mater. 39, 951 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    J. Sheng, L. Wang, and G. Lux, J. Electron. Mater. 25, 1 (1996).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R.W. Oda, B.K. Furman, C.A. Evans Jr, C.E. Bryson, W.A. Petersen, M.A. Kelly, and D.H. Wayne, Anal. Chem. 55, 574 (1983).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    A. Million, N.K. Dhar, and J.H. Dinan, J. Cryst. Growth 159, 76 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J. Weertman and J. Weertman, Elementary Dislocation Theory (Oxford: University Press, 1992), p. 173.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    P. Wijewarnasuriya, Y. Chen, G. Brill, N. Dhar, D. Benson, and L. Bubulac, J. Electron. Mater. 39, 1110 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Yong Chang, C.R. Becker, C.H. Grein, J. Zhao, C. Fulk, T. Casselman, R. Kiran, X.J. Wang, E. Robinson, S.Y. An, S. Mallick, S. Sivanathan, T. Aoki, C.Z. Wang, D.J. Smith, S. Velicu, J. Zhao, J. Crocco, Y. Chen, G. Brill, P.S. Wijewarnasuriya, N. Dhar, R. Sporken, and V. Nathan, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 1171 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    L.O. Bubulac, W.E. Tennant, R.A. Riedel, J. Bajaj, and D.D. Edwall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 1, 164 (1983).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. O. Bubulac.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bubulac, L.O., Benson, J., Jacobs, R. et al. The Distribution Tail of LWIR HgCdTe-on-Si FPAs: a Hypothetical Physical Mechanism. Journal of Elec Materi 40, 280–288 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-010-1505-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • HgCdTe
  • discrete species
  • Si
  • FPA
  • dislocation
  • enhanced diffusion
  • diffusion pipes