Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 1046–1055 | Cite as

Evolution of A-Type Macrosegregation in Large Size Steel Ingot After Multistep Forging and Heat Treatment

  • Abdelhalim Loucif
  • Emna Ben Fredj
  • Nathan Harris
  • Davood Shahriari
  • Mohammad Jahazi
  • Louis-Philippe Lapierre-Boire


A-type macrosegregation refers to the channel chemical heterogeneities that can be formed during solidification in large size steel ingots. In this research, a combination of experiment and simulation was used to study the influence of open die forging parameters on the evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns during a multistep forging of a 40 metric ton (MT) cast, high-strength steel ingot. Macrosegregation patterns were determined experimentally by macroetch along the longitudinal axis of the forged and heat-treated ingot. Mass spectroscopy, on more than 900 samples, was used to determine the chemical composition map of the entire longitudinal sectioned surface. FORGE NxT 1.1 finite element modeling code was used to predict the effect of forging sequences on the morphology evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns. For this purpose, grain flow variables were defined and implemented in a large scale finite element modeling code to describe oriented grains and A-type segregation patterns. Examination of the A-type macrosegregation showed four to five parallel continuous channels located nearly symmetrical to the axis of the forged ingot. In some regions, the A-type patterns became curved or obtained a wavy form in contrast to their straight shape in the as-cast state. Mass spectrometry analysis of the main alloying elements (C, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, P, and S) revealed that carbon, manganese, and chromium were the most segregated alloying elements in A-type macrosegregation patterns. The observed differences were analyzed using thermodynamic calculations, which indicated that changes in the chemical composition of the liquid metal can affect the primary solidification mode and the segregation intensity of the alloying elements. Finite element modeling simulation results showed very good agreement with the experimental observations, thereby allowing for the quantification of the influence of temperature and deformation on the evolution of the shape of the macrosegregation channels during the open die forging process.



The financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada in the form of a Collaborative Research and Development Grant (CRDG) under Grant No. 470174 is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    G. Lesoult: Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2005, vols. A413–A414, pp. 19–29.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Wu, J. Li, A. Kharicha, and A. Ludwig: in Proc. 2013 Int. Symp. on Liquid Metal Processing & Casting, Austin, TX, M.J.M. Krane, A. Jardy, R.L. Williamson, and J.J. Beaman, eds., 2013, pp. 171–80.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.J. Moore and N.A. Shah: Int. Mater. Rev., 1983, vol. 28, pp. 383–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y.F. Cao, Y. Chen, and D.Z. Li: Acta Mater., 2016, vol. 107, pp. 325–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.T. Rad, P. Kotas, and C. Beckermann: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2013, vol. 44A, pp. 4266–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E.J. Pickering and H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia: J. Pressure Vess. Technol., 2014, vol. 136, pp. 031403-1–031403-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Loucif, E. Ben Fredj, M. Jahazi, L.-P. Lapierre-Boire, R. Tremblay, and R. Beauvais: Proc. 6th Int. Congr. on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS2015), Beijing, 2015, pp. 1043–46.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Miettinen: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 1997, vol. 28B, pp. 281–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Santillana, R. Boom, D. Eskin, H. Mizukami, M. Hanao, and M. Kawamoto: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2012, vol. 43A, pp. 5048–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Olsson, R. West, and H. Fredriksson: Scand. J. Metall., 1986, vol. 15, pp. 104–12.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y.F. Cao, Y. Chen, P.X. Fu, H.W. Liu, and D.Z. Li: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2017, vol. 48A, pp. 2260–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E.J. Pickering, C. Chesman, S. Al-Bermani, M. Holland, P. Davies, and J. Talamantes-Silva: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2015, vol. 46B, pp. 1860–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Ge, F. Ren, J. Li, X. Han, M. Xia, and J. Li: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2017, vol. 48A, pp. 1139–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.P. Groover: Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes and Systems, 4th ed, Wiley, New York, 2010, pp. 406–407.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W.L. Zhao and Q.X. Ma: Mater. Trans., 2015, vol. 56, pp. 850–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Harris, D. Shahriari, and M. Jahazi: J. Manuf. Processes, 2017, vol. 26, pp. 131–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Chadha, D. Shahriari, and M. Jahazi: Metall. Ital., 2016, 4, pp. 5–12.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    FORGE NxT 1.0®, Transvalor S.A., Cedex, France.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Sang, X. Kang, and D. Li: J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2010, vol. 210, pp. 703–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E.J. Pickering: ISIJ Int., 2013, vol. 53, pp. 935–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Suzuki and K. Miyamoto: Trans. ISIJ, 1978, vol. 18, pp. 80–89.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    B.K. Dhindaw, T. Antonsson, J. Tinoco, and H. Fredriksson: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2004, vol. 35A, pp. 2869–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G.E. Totten, L. Xie, and K. Funatani: Handbook of Mechanical Alloy Design, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 2014, pp. 133–34.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Fujda: JMMM, 2005, vol. 15, pp. 45–51.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdelhalim Loucif
    • 1
  • Emna Ben Fredj
    • 1
  • Nathan Harris
    • 1
  • Davood Shahriari
    • 1
  • Mohammad Jahazi
    • 1
  • Louis-Philippe Lapierre-Boire
    • 2
  1. 1.Département de Génie MécaniqueÉcole de technologie supérieureMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Finkl Steel-SorelSaint-Joseph-de-SorelCanada

Personalised recommendations