Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 953–957 | Cite as

Regimes of Micro-bubble Formation Using Gas Injection into Ladle Shroud

  • Sheng ChangEmail author
  • Xiangkun Cao
  • Zongshu Zou


Gas injection into a ladle shroud is a practical approach to produce micro-bubbles in tundishes, to promote inclusion removal from liquid steel. A semi-empirical model was established to characterize the bubble formation considering the effect of shearing action combined with the non-fully bubble break-up by turbulence. The model shows a good accuracy in predicting the size of bubbles formed in complex flow within the ladle shroud.


The authors would like to appreciate Professor Roderick I.L. Guthrie and Dr. Mihaiela Isac, for providing all the research facilities in McGill Metals Processing Centre. We also acknowledge the financial support from NESRC and Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Cooperation, for this work.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MetallurgyNortheastern UniversityShenyangP.R. China
  2. 2.McGill Metals Processing CentreMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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