Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 1078–1088 | Cite as

Carbothermal Reduction of Quartz and Carbon Pellets at Elevated Temperatures

  • Fei Li
  • Merete Tangstad
  • Eli Ringdalen


In this study, the carbothermal reduction of pellets composed of quartz and carbon at temperatures between 1898 K and 1948 K (1625 °C and 1675 °C) are investigated. The main product from this reaction is silicon carbide (SiC). The reduction of quartz with carbon black, charcoal, coke, coal, and pre-heated coal in the pellet were compared to investigate the different carbon resources used in silicon production. Charcoal and coke have high SiO reactivity, while carbon black and coal (pre-heated coal) have low SiO reactivity. Charcoal and carbon black show better matching between quartz/carbon reactivity and SiO reactivity, and will lose less SiO gas than coke and pre-heated coal. Coal has a high volatile content and is thus not recommended as a raw material for the pellets.



The authors acknowledge Elkem and the Research Council of Norway for the financial support through the Project “235123 Silicon Production with use of Natural Gas.” Steinar Prytz from Sintef is acknowledged for providing of SiC/SiO2 pellet and helpful discussion about Sintef SiO reactivity test.


  1. 1.
    A. Schei, Tuseth, J.K. and Tveit, H.: Production of High Silicon Alloys. (Tapir Forlag, Trondheim, 1998).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tangstad M (2013) Handbook of Ferroalloys: Theory and Technology, Chapter 6 – Ferrosilicon and Silicon Technology. Elsevier: AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.H. Myrhaug: Non-fossil Reduction Materials in the Silicon Process-Properties and Behavior. Ph.D. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    V. Myrvågnes: Analyses and Characterization of Fossil Carbonaceous Material for Silicon Production. Ph.D. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, 2008.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Lindstad, S. Gaal, S. Hansen, S. Prytz: 11th, International Conference on Innovations in the Ferro Alloy Industry, New Delhi, India, 2007, pp 414–23.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Videm T (1995) INFACON VII, Tveit and Page Tuset, FFF: Trondheim, Norway, pp 221-230.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E.H. Myrhaug, J.K. Tuset and H. Tveit, INFACON X: ‘Transformation through Technology’ (Cape Town, South Africa, 2004), pp 108-121.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Li and M. Tangstad, Silicon for the Chemical and Solar Industry XIII, (Kristiansand, Norway, 2016), pp 259-268.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Li and M. Tangstad, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 2017, vol. 48B, pp. 853-869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Mizutaki, T. Shimoo, S. Ando and H. Kimura, Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials 1988, vol. 52, pp. 945–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Agarwal and U. Pad, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 1999, vol. 30, pp. 295-306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. W. Weimer, K. J. Nilsen, G. A. Cochran, R. P. Roach, AIChE Journal 1993, vol. 39, pp. 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wotzak GP, Biernacki JJ (1989) J. Thermal Anal. 35: 1651-1667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Ringdalen, JOM 2015, vol. 67, pp. 484-492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Ksiazek, M. Tangstad, H. Dalaker and E. Ringdalen, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E 2014, vol. 1, pp. 272-279.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Ni: Kinetics of the reaction between quartz and silicon carbide in different gas atmospheres. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, 2015).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Material Science and EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.SINTEF Materials and ChemistryTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations