Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 813–823 | Cite as

Cementite Formation from Hematite–Graphite Mixture by Simultaneous Thermal–Mechanical Activation

  • Milad Ashrafzadeh
  • Amir Peyman Soleymani
  • Masoud Panjepour
  • Morteza Shamanian


In this study, the effect of simultaneous thermal–mechanical activation (STMA) process on carbothermic reduction of hematite and also on iron carbide formation has been investigated. For this purpose, the STMA process was performed for 3 and 6 hours at 973 K (700 °C) and 1073 K (800 °C) on hematite–graphite powder mixtures (with 22 wt pct C) in argon atmosphere. The XRD patterns showed that by performing this process at 973 K (700 °C), the initial hematite reduction led to the formation of wüstite in the presence of graphite. Metallic iron phase was also formed along with wüstite phase at 1073 K (800 °C) for 3 hours, and by increasing the process time to 6 hours, in addition to the metallic iron, iron carbide was also formed. The SEM images and EDS analysis obtained at 1073 K (800 °C)were also indicative of the formation of pearlite structure along with proeutectoid cementite phase and free carbon in the form of graphite in the structure of the samples. According to the results of the image analysis, the percentage of the carbon content was more than 2.22 wt pct in this process lasting for 6 hours at 1073 K (800 °C). Also, DTA results showed that the sample hot milled for 6 hours at 1073 K (800 °C) contained more than 2.1 wt pct carbon. The mechanism of metallic iron and cementite formation from hematite was proposed. Therefore, the STMA process led to an increase in the rate of carbothermic reduction of hematite to metallic iron and reduced its starting temperature relative to the non-simultaneous application of each of the thermal and mechanical activation. Finally, this process can be brought up as a new method for the production of iron carbide from iron oxides.


Hematite Cementite Metallic Iron Carbothermic Reduction Free Carbon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milad Ashrafzadeh
    • 1
  • Amir Peyman Soleymani
    • 1
  • Masoud Panjepour
    • 1
  • Morteza Shamanian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

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